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Sport Psychology Part I Commitment Communication Concentration Bryan McCann Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Science Robert Gordon University Trainee Sport.

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Presentation on theme: "Sport Psychology Part I Commitment Communication Concentration Bryan McCann Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Science Robert Gordon University Trainee Sport."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sport Psychology Part I Commitment Communication Concentration Bryan McCann Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Science Robert Gordon University Trainee Sport and Exercise Psychologist

2 Session Overview Introduction Part 1 – Commitment Break Part 2 – Communication Break Part 3 – Concentration Summary, Q&A, homework!

3 Aims for Session Application of theory Sharing knowledge and experience Increasing coach efficacy

4 Ground Rules Interactive session Confidentiality Questions? Fun!

5 About me! BSc (Hons) Psychology – Glasgow Caledonian University MSc Sport and Exercise Psychology – Bangor University Trainee Sport and Exercise Psychologist – BPS Chartered Status 4 years experience working with athletes

6 Sport Psychology Experience Support for athletes Olympic and international skiers International and national table tennis players International and national swimmers International rugby player National hockey player Youth football players Youth football academy Lecturing and research

7 About You You! Name Aims for session SportExperienceAthletes

8 What makes a great athlete?

9 Performance Profiling PhysicalPsychologicalAttitudinalTechnical FlexibilityImageryMotivatedBasic technique BalanceSelf TalkConfidentArm movement FitnessFocusControlLanding position

10 Performance Profiling QualityDefinition FitnessAerobic/anaerobic ImageryUses imagery to improve performance ConfidenceSecure in own ability MotivationDetermined to succeed in spite of failure Basic TechniquePerfect core techniques for sport

11 Performance Profiling

12 QualityIdeal Level (1-10)Actual Level (1-10) Fitness107 Imagery94 Confidence108 Motivation104 Basic Technique99

13 Sport Psychology Application of psychology to sport to assist athletes in: Overcoming issues (e.g., injury) General performance improvement Topics include Confidence, motivation, anxiety, communication, control, concentration, coach- athlete relationships, team cohesion, injury rehabilitation, etc

14 The Sport Psychologist One-to-one support Group delivery During sessions Dedicated workshops Through coaches

15 Case Studies Each person select athlete they know. Note the following Age Competition level Strengths Weaknesses Particular issue(s) experienced in the past Action taken regarding issue

16 Harwood (2008) – Coaching Behaviour Directives 1. Intentionally promote psychological skill same as physical skill 2. Increase awareness of skill by illustrating good and bad examples 3. Emphasise value of possessing skill 4. Role model skill and employ role model examples 5. Structure sessions so as to train skill 6. Publicly reinforce demonstrations of skill 7. Employ peer reinforcement of skill 8. Review presence of skill

17 Commitment What does this mean??

18 Commitment Motivated behaviours Physical effort regardless of scoreline Persistent involvement in the game Elevated levels of effort Non-avoidance of difficult skills Persistence after failure

19 Motivation (Commitment) Definition : The intensity and direction of ones effort (Sage, 1977) Direction – whether a person seeks out, approaches or is attracted to certain situations Intensity – the amount of effort someone puts in to a certain situation

20 Motivation (commitment) Key topics: Achievement motivation Attribution theory Achievement goal theory Self-determination theory Punishments and rewards Flow

21 Achievement Motivation Achievement motivation is a persons orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments (Gill, 2000). Competitiveness is a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others (Martens, 1986).

22 Achievement Motivation Achievement motivation: Self- comparison of achievement. Competitiveness: Social evaluation or comparison. Achievement motivation influences: Choice of activities Effort in pursuing goals Intensity of effort Persistence in face of failure

23 Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986) Group discussion: What factors do your athletes cite as being the reasons for their success and/or failures?

24 Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986) Focuses on how people explain successes and failures Suggests that all reasons can be classified into a few categories: Stability Locus of causality Locus of control

25 Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1985, 1986)

26

27 Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1984) Goal Orientation Task-orientated Focus on improving relative to her previous performances. Perceived ability not based on comparison with others (e.g., PB) Ego-Orientated (Outcome orientated) Success is dependent on performing better than others, Perceptions of competence are based on reference to others (e.g., winning)

28 Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.) Goal Involvement Ego involvement Situations which induce a state of social evaluation, accompanied by feelings of anxiety Task involvement Situations which do not induce a state of social evaluation, accompanied by low feelings of anxiety

29 Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.) Motivational Climate Mastery climate – athletes receive positive reinforcement when they Work hard Demonstrate improvement Help others through cooperation Believe each players contribution is important Competitive climate – athletes perceive that Poor performances and mistakes will be punished High-ability athletes will receive most attention and recognition Competition between team members is encouraged

30 Achievement Goal Theory (Cont.) Goal Orientation (Personality trait) Goal Involvement (Psychological state) Motivational Climate (Environment) 1.Task or mastery orientation a)Effort important b)Mastery important 1.Task or Mastery Involvement a)Athlete works hard b)Athlete strives for mastery 1.Mastery climate a)Effort rewarded b)Cooperation emphasised 2. Ego or competitive orientation a)Social comparisons important b)Winning important 2. Ego or competitive involvement a)Athlete defines ability as winning b)Athlete strives to win 2. Competitive climate a)Mistakes punished b)Competition encouraged

31 Group Discussion Do you have athletes who are task or ego orientated, and how does this manifest itself? Do you have athletes who exhibit task or ego involvement in certain situations? Would you describe your coaching sessions as having a task of ego climate?

32 Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Focuses on three basic psychological needs Autonomy Competence Relatedness...people are inherently motivated to feel connected to others within a social milieu (relatedness), to function effectively in that milieu (competence), and to feel a sense of personal initiative in doing so (autonomy) (Deci & Ryan, 1994, p7)

33 Self-Determination Theory (cont.) Intrinsic MotivationExtrinsic Motivation Pleasure Fun Skill learning Skill improvement Challenge Excitement Etc. Social approval Social status Rewards Winning Beating others Trophies Etc.

34 Self-Determination Theory (cont) Intrinsic Motivation

35 Self-Determination Theory (cont) Extrinsic Motivation

36 Self-Determination Theory (cont.)

37 SDT – Basic Psychological Needs Competence The need to feel confident in ones ability to carry out skills Autonomy The need to be in control of oneself and ones destiny Relatedness The need to relate to other people, to care for others and have others care for you

38 Basic Psychological Needs How do you currently promote: Competence Autonomy Relatedness

39 Basic Psychological Needs Competence: Goal setting Mastery climate Relatedness Peer support Coach-athlete relationship

40 Basic Psychological Needs Autonomy (Cox, 2012) Provide athletes with boundaries and choices Provide a rationale for training tasks Acknowledge and respect athletes perspectives and feelings Provide opportunities for independent work and taking initiative Provide feedback about competence that does not control or constrain behaviour Avoid conscious bullying Encourage a mastery approach to learning and discourage social comparison

41 Punishments and Rewards Discuss existing use of punishments and rewards

42 Guidelines for reinforcements Choose effective reinforcers Social Material Activity Special outings Schedule reinforcements effectively Reward appropriate behaviours Successful approximations Performance, not just outcomes Effort Emotional and social skills

43 Guidelines for punishments (if they need to be used!) Consistency Punish behaviour, not person Allow athlete input into punishments Do not use physical activity as a punishment Make punishment not a reward Dont shout or yell, just inform Do not punish whilst playing Dont embarrass Use sparingly, but enforce Dont punish others for a teammates mistake Make sure athletes understand reason for punishment

44 Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation

45 Controlling aspect of rewards Perceived locus of causality (external) Cause of behaviour lies outside the person Intrinsic motivation decreases

46 Controlling aspect of rewards Perceived locus of causality (internal) Cause of behaviour lies inside the person Intrinsic motivation increases

47 Informational aspect of reward Positive information of competence Increased perceived competence Intrinsic motivation increases

48 Informational aspect of reward Negative information of competence Decreased perceived competence Intrinsic motivation decreases

49 Creating a Positive Motivational Climate TARGET acronym (Epstein, 1989; Treasure & Roberts, 1995) Tasks – focus on learning and task involvement Authority – allow athletes to participate in decision making Reward – Reward improvement, not social comparison Grouping – Create cooperative learning climates within groups Evaluation – focus these on personal improvement Timing – use proper timing for all these conditions

50 What will you do?

51 How will you...? 1. Intentionally promote psychological skill same as physical skill 2. Increase awareness of skill by illustrating good and bad examples 3. Emphasise value of possessing skill 4. Role model skill and employ role model examples 5. Structure sessions so as to train skill 6. Publicly reinforce demonstrations of skill 7. Employ peer reinforcement of skill 8. Review presence of skill

52 Communication Actions speak louder than words...

53 The Communication Process Can you identify the 5 steps of communication? 1.Decision to send information about something 2.Encoding of information by sender 3.Channel through which information is transmitted 4.Decoding of message by receiver 5.Internal response by receiver to message

54 Communication Task

55 Coach-team Communications Impart Inspire Monitor progress team is making Clarify Reinforce

56 Athlete-Athlete communication Make sure everyone is pulling in same direction Strategies for improving team harmony Encourage listening to others Develop receiving and giving of feedback Increase tolerance of others Avoid backstabbing and gossiping Keep confrontations private Conflict manage if it cannot be resolved

57 Coach-Athlete Relationship Understand one another Use comfortable communication style Be open, honest, sincere, genuine and consistent Convey rationales for expectations Focus on being positive – role model Work on non-verbal communication Develop empathy skills Reduce uncertainty Recognise importance of managing own emotions Demonstrate open door policy Set aside time to meet with athletes

58 Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006) Three interpersonal constructs of coach- athlete dyad: Closeness Mutual respect, common beliefs, trust, love Commitment Dedication, sacrifice, satisfaction Complimentarity How the coach and athlete complement each others strengths in terms of roles, tasks and ability to adapt

59 Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006) Co-orientation The degree to which the coach and athlete agree on the 3 manifestations of the coach- athlete dyad Mastery-motivational climate and intrinsic motivation linked with co-orientation

60 Coach-Athlete Relationship (Jowett, 2006) What can you do to increase perceptions of the following with an athlete: Closeness Commitment Complimentarity

61 How will you...? 1. Intentionally promote psychological skill same as physical skill 2. Increase awareness of skill by illustrating good and bad examples 3. Emphasise value of possessing skill 4. Role model skill and employ role model examples 5. Structure sessions so as to train skill 6. Publicly reinforce demonstrations of skill 7. Employ peer reinforcement of skill 8. Review presence of skill


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