2 Session Outline What is motivation? Views of motivation Five guidelines for building motivationDeveloping a realistic view of motivationAchievement motivation and competitiveness(continued)
3 Session Outline (continued) Why are achievement motivation and competitiveness important?Theories of achievement motivationDeveloping achievement motivation and competitivenessImplications for professional practice
4 What Is Motivation?Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort.Direction of effort refers to whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to situations.Intensity of effort refers to how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation.Direction and intensity of effort are closely related.
5 Views of Motivation Participant- or trait-centered view Situation-centered viewInteractional view
7 Five Guidelines for Building Motivation: Guidelines 1 and 2 Guideline 1: Both situations and traits motivate people.Guideline 2: People have multiple motives for involvement. Understand why people participate in physical activity.
8 Motives for Involvement People participate for more than one reason.People may have competing motives for involvement.People have both shared and unique motives.Motives change over time.Motives differ across cultures.
9 How to Identify Participant Motives Observe participants.Talk informally to others.Ask participants directly.
10 Major Motives for Sport Participants Improving skillsHaving funBeing with friendsExperiencing thrills and excitementAchieving successDeveloping fitness
11 Major Motives for Exercise Participants JoiningHealth factorsWeight lossFitnessSelf-challengeFeeling betterContinuingEnjoymentLiking instructorLiking type of activitySocial factors
12 Five Guidelines for Building Motivation: Guideline 3 Guideline 3: Change the environment to enhance motivation.Provide both competitive and recreational opportunities.Provide for multiple motives and opportunities.Adjust to individuals within groups.
13 Five Guidelines for Building Motivation: Guidelines 4 and 5 Guideline 4: Leaders influence motivation directly and indirectly.Guideline 5: Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives.
14 Developing a Realistic View of Motivation Motivation is a key variable in both learning and performance contexts.Physical and psychological factors beyond motivation influence behavior and must be considered.Some motivational factors are more easily influenced than others.
15 Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness Achievement motivation is a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments (Gill, 2000).Competitiveness is a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others (Martens, 1986).
16 Keys to Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness Achievement motivation: Self-comparison of achievement.Competitiveness: Social evaluation or comparison.
17 Achievement Motivation Influences Choice of activitiesEffort to pursue goalsIntensity of effortPersistence in the face of failure
18 Theories of Achievement Motivation Need achievement theoryAttribution theoryAchievement goal theoryCompetence motivation theory
23 Achievement Goal Theory Outcome goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation): Comparing performance with and defeating others.Task (mastery) goal orientation: Improving relative to one’s own past performances.Social goal orientation: Judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others.
28 What Achievement Motivation Says About High Achievers High motivational orientation to achieve successLow motivation orientation to avoid failureFocus on the pride of success(continued)
29 What Achievement Motivation Says About High Achievers (continued) Ascribe success to stable and internal factors within their controlAscribe failure to unstable and external factors outside their controlUsually adopt task goals\(continued)
30 What Achievement Motivation Says About High Achievers (continued) Perceived competence and control: Have high perceived competence and feel that achievement is within their controlTask choice: Seek out challenges, able competitors, and demanding tasksPerformance: Perform well in evaluative conditions
31 What Achievement Motivation Says About Low Achievers Low motivational orientation to achieve successHigh motivational orientation to avoid failureFocus on shame and worry that may result from failure(continued)
32 What Achievement Motivation Says About Low Achievers (continued) Ascribe success to unstable and external factors outside their controlAscribe failure to stable and internal factors within their controlUsually adopt outcome goals(continued)
33 What Achievement Motivation Says About Low Achievers (continued) Perceived competence and control: Have low perceived competence and feel that achievement is outside their controlTask choice: Avoid challenges, seek out very difficult or very easy tasks or competitorsPerformance: Perform poorly in evaluative conditions
34 Stages of Developing Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness Autonomous competence stageSocial comparison stageIntegrated (self- and social-comparison) stage
36 Keys to Developing Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness Recognize stage of achievement motivation.Ultimate goal is the integrated stage.Motivational climate influences achievement motivation.
37 Implication for Professional Practice Recognize the interaction of personal and situational factors influencing achievement behavior.Stage of achievement behaviorGoal orientationAttributionsSituations approached or avoided(continued)
38 Implications for Professional Practice (continued) Emphasize mastery (task) goals and downplay outcome goals. Create a mastery motivational climate.Monitor and alter attributional feedback.Monitor and correct inappropriate attributions.(continued)
39 Implications for Professional Practice (continued) Determine when competitive goals are appropriate.Enhance feelings of competence and control.