2Session Outline What is motivation? Views of motivation Five guidelines for building motivationDeveloping a realistic view of motivationAchievement motivation and competitiveness(continued)
3Session Outline (continued) Why are achievement motivation and competitiveness important?Theories of achievement motivationDeveloping achievement motivation and competitivenessImplications for professional practice
4What Is Motivation?Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort.Direction of effort refers to whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to situations.Intensity of effort refers to how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation.Direction and intensity of effort are closely related.
5Views of Motivation Participant- or trait-centered view Situation-centered viewInteractional view
7Five Guidelines for Building Motivation: Guidelines 1 and 2 Guideline 1: Both situations and traits motivate people.Guideline 2: People have multiple motives for involvement. Understand why people participate in physical activity.
8Motives for Involvement People participate for more than one reason.People may have competing motives for involvement.People have both shared and unique motives.Motives change over time.Motives differ across cultures.
9How to Identify Participant Motives Observe participants.Talk informally to others.Ask participants directly.
10Major Motives for Sport Participants Improving skillsHaving funBeing with friendsExperiencing thrills and excitementAchieving successDeveloping fitness
11Major Motives for Exercise Participants JoiningHealth factorsWeight lossFitnessSelf-challengeFeeling betterContinuingEnjoymentLiking instructorLiking type of activitySocial factors
12Five Guidelines for Building Motivation: Guideline 3 Guideline 3: Change the environment to enhance motivation.Provide both competitive and recreational opportunities.Provide for multiple motives and opportunities.Adjust to individuals within groups.
13Five Guidelines for Building Motivation: Guidelines 4 and 5 Guideline 4: Leaders influence motivation directly and indirectly.Guideline 5: Use behavior modification to change undesirable participant motives.
14Developing a Realistic View of Motivation Motivation is a key variable in both learning and performance contexts.Physical and psychological factors beyond motivation influence behavior and must be considered.Some motivational factors are more easily influenced than others.
15Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness Achievement motivation is a person’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments (Gill, 2000).Competitiveness is a disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others (Martens, 1986).
16Keys to Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness Achievement motivation: Self-comparison of achievement.Competitiveness: Social evaluation or comparison.
17Achievement Motivation Influences Choice of activitiesEffort to pursue goalsIntensity of effortPersistence in the face of failure
18Theories of Achievement Motivation Need achievement theoryAttribution theoryAchievement goal theoryCompetence motivation theory
23Achievement Goal Theory Outcome goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation): Comparing performance with and defeating others.Task (mastery) goal orientation: Improving relative to one’s own past performances.Social goal orientation: Judging competence in terms of affiliation with the group and recognition of being liked by others.
28What Achievement Motivation Says About High Achievers High motivational orientation to achieve successLow motivation orientation to avoid failureFocus on the pride of success(continued)
29What Achievement Motivation Says About High Achievers (continued) Ascribe success to stable and internal factors within their controlAscribe failure to unstable and external factors outside their controlUsually adopt task goals\(continued)
30What Achievement Motivation Says About High Achievers (continued) Perceived competence and control: Have high perceived competence and feel that achievement is within their controlTask choice: Seek out challenges, able competitors, and demanding tasksPerformance: Perform well in evaluative conditions
31What Achievement Motivation Says About Low Achievers Low motivational orientation to achieve successHigh motivational orientation to avoid failureFocus on shame and worry that may result from failure(continued)
32What Achievement Motivation Says About Low Achievers (continued) Ascribe success to unstable and external factors outside their controlAscribe failure to stable and internal factors within their controlUsually adopt outcome goals(continued)
33What Achievement Motivation Says About Low Achievers (continued) Perceived competence and control: Have low perceived competence and feel that achievement is outside their controlTask choice: Avoid challenges, seek out very difficult or very easy tasks or competitorsPerformance: Perform poorly in evaluative conditions
34Stages of Developing Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness Autonomous competence stageSocial comparison stageIntegrated (self- and social-comparison) stage
36Keys to Developing Achievement Motivation and Competitiveness Recognize stage of achievement motivation.Ultimate goal is the integrated stage.Motivational climate influences achievement motivation.
37Implication for Professional Practice Recognize the interaction of personal and situational factors influencing achievement behavior.Stage of achievement behaviorGoal orientationAttributionsSituations approached or avoided(continued)
38Implications for Professional Practice (continued) Emphasize mastery (task) goals and downplay outcome goals. Create a mastery motivational climate.Monitor and alter attributional feedback.Monitor and correct inappropriate attributions.(continued)
39Implications for Professional Practice (continued) Determine when competitive goals are appropriate.Enhance feelings of competence and control.