2 What is motivation??? Cox (1998)- A desire to fulfil a need Definitions:Cox (1998)- A desire to fulfil a needSage (1974)- The internal mechanisms which arouse and direct behaviourSage (1974)- The direction and intensity of ones effort‘The effort administered towards a goal or desired behaviour’ (Allen, 2013)
3 Views of Motivation Trait Centred Motivation comes from within regarding the situationSituation CentredThe situation determines the level of motivation, which also shapes your behaviourInteractional ViewIt is a combination of both a persons trait and the situation that affects the level of motivation shownMotivation can influence your:- Selection and preference for an activity- Persistence- Effort levels- Performance levels relative to your ability level
5 Achievement Motivation Theory It is seen as a personality factor and describes our persistence to keep striving for success… Our level of COMPETITIVENESS‘I do not play to win; I play to fight against the idea of losing’ (Eric Cantona, 1997)Yet… some people are driven to success and have NO fear of failure, whilst some people are driven to succeed due to a DEEP fear of failure.McClelland and Atkinson:Achievement Motivation= need to achieve (nACH)- need to avoid failure (naF)If nACH outweighs our naF= high in achievement motivationIf naF outweighs our nACH= low in achievement motivationThis will influence our behaviour in sport and the challenges we seek.
6 How will being high or low in achievement motivation affect a sportspersons behaviour/ sport?? Choose competitive situationsChoose opponents close to their skill level and present a challengeLow (high fear of failure):Choose opponents of much higher/lower skill levelAvoid situations that present personal challengesSituation:If probability of success is high, tends to weaken the need to achieve as reward is lowIf probability of success is low, then need to avoid failure is low
7 Wieners Attribution Theory The reasons we give for an outcome are called ATTRIBUTIONS.They affect:Motivation LevelsProcess of understanding in order to learn from our experiencesWill affect our future expectations of success and failureABILITY/ SKILL:Performers capabilityEFFORT:Physical and mental effortTASK DIFFICULTY:Problems posed by the taskLUCK:Attributed to chance (weather)
8 ‘I played well today, the training is paying off’ Reasons for Success:‘I played well today, the training is paying off’‘I was lucky to get away with that one’‘I tried like mad in the final set- that’s what pulled me through’Reasons for Failure:‘I can’t play this game- it’s impossible’‘I didn’t get the rub of the green today’‘I was really lazy today’Research findings:Winners: take responsibility for their success and usually give internal attributions to make themselves feel better ‘I am more talented’Losers: give external attributions for their failures and try to either enhance or protect their ego ‘the referee was against me’
10 Intrinsic MotivationIntrinsic motivation involves gaining self-satisfaction, pride and a feeling of achievement.It often involves overcoming a particular challenge or simply gaining enjoyment from participating.
11 The use of extrinsic motivation must be monitored carefully. Extrinsic motivation involves the performer receiving some form of reward from others, often as a form of reward from others.Can be tangible or intangibleTangible – are real can be touched (Money/ Trophies)Intangible – Words, status e.g applauseThe use of extrinsic motivation must be monitored carefully.If overused, it may lead to the performer only participating if they will be externally rewarded.This will reduce intrinsic motivation and may lead to a drop in participation.
12 Effects on sports Performance How would the various views/theories of motivation (intrinsic and extrinsic) affect sports performance???When talking about the effect on sports performance, make your views and back it up with the information you have researched/gathered from various sources… Remember there is NOT a wrong answer- unless it is NOT backed up with theories and findings!!!!
13 Task…Grading criterion M1 links to criteria P1 and P2, requiring learners to explain the effects of personality andmotivation on sports performance.For P2, learners must describe the factors that affect the motivation of athletes.This must include a definition of motivation, along with a description of views of motivation, motivation types, theories of motivation andhow motivation affects sportsperformance.Grading criterion D1 builds on M1, and requires learners to evaluate the effects of personality and motivationon sports performance. This means learners must make a judgement based on each of the effects that theyhave described/explained (criteria P1, P2 and M1).
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