Presentation on theme: "Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort."— Presentation transcript:
1Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort. What Is Motivation?Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort.Direction of effort: Whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to a situation.Intensity of effort: How much effort an individual puts forth in a situation.Direction and intensity of effort are closely related.
2Talk informally to others Ask participants directly How to Identify Participant MotivesObserve participantsTalk informally to othersAsk participants directly
3Major Motives for Sport Participants Improving skillsHaving funBeing with friendsExperiencing thrills and excitementAchieving successDeveloping fitness
43 Views of Motivation Participant – or Trait–Centered View Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics (e.g., needs, goals, personality).
5Situation – Centered View Motivated behavior is primarily determined by situational factors.
6Interactional ViewMotivated behavior results from the interaction of participant factors and situational factors.
7Developing a Realistic View of Motivation Motivation is a key variable in learning, performance and rehabilitation contexts.Other physical and psychological factors beyond motivation influence behavior and must be considered.Some motivational factors are more easily influenced than others.
8Achievement Motivation An individual’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments.
9Competitiveness“A disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others.”
10Keys: Competitiveness = Social evaluation or comparison Achievement motivation = Self-comparison or achievement
11Four Theories of Achievement Motivation in Sport & Exercise Contexts
15Achievement Goal Theory Achievement goalsOutcome goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation) focuses on comparing performance with others and defeating others.Task goal orientation (or mastery goal orientation) focuses on improving relative to one’s own past performances.
16Achievement Goal Theory Keys in Rehab SettingFocus extra attention on task-oriented goals.Foster mastery or task motivational climates.
17Competence Motivation Theory Keys in Rehab SettingPeople are motivated to feel worthy or competent.Feelings of competence and worth, as well as perceptions of control, determine motives.
18What Theories of Achievement Motivation Tell Us About High Achievers 1. High motivation to achieve success2. Low motivation to achieve failure3. Focuses on the pride of success4. Attributes success to stable and internal factors within one’s control5. Attributes failure to unstable and external factors outside one’s control
196. Has high perceived competence and 6. Has high perceived competence and feels that achievement is within his or her control7. Seeks out challenges and able competitors/tasks8. Performs well in evaluative conditions
20What Theories of Achievement Motivation Tell Us About Low Achievers 1. Low motivation to achieve success2. High motivation to achieve failure3. Focuses on shame and worry that may result from failure4. Has low perceived competence and feels that achievement is outside his or her control
219. Performs poorly in evaluative conditions 5. Ascribes success to unstable and external factors outside one’s control6. Ascribes failure to stable and internal factors within one’s control7. Usually adopts outcome goals8. Avoids challenges; seeks out very difficult or very easy tasks/ competitors9. Performs poorly in evaluative conditions
22Five Guidelines for Building Motivation in Rehabilitation
23Both situations and traits motivate people. Guideline 1Guidelines for Building MotivationBoth situations and traits motivate people.
24People have multiple motives for involvement. Guideline 2Guidelines for Building MotivationPeople have multiple motives for involvement.
25Change the environment to enhance motivation. Guideline 3Guidelines for Building MotivationChange the environment to enhance motivation.
26Leaders influence motivation, directly and indirectly. Guideline 4Guidelines for Building MotivationLeaders influence motivation, directly and indirectly.
27Guidelines for Building Motivation Use behavior modification methods to change undesirable participant motives.Positive reinforcementsAppropriate attributionsGoal –setting(task vs. outcome focus)