Presentation on theme: "What Is Motivation? Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort. Direction of effort: Whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted."— Presentation transcript:
What Is Motivation? Motivation is the direction and intensity of effort. Direction of effort: Whether an individual seeks out, approaches, or is attracted to a situation. Intensity of effort: How much effort an individual puts forth in a situation. Direction and intensity of effort are closely related.
Observe participants How to Identify Participant Motives Talk informally to others Ask participants directly
Major Motives for Sport Participants Improving skills Having fun Being with friends Experiencing thrills and excitement Achieving success Developing fitness
Participant – or Trait–Centered View Motivated behavior is primarily a function of individual characteristics (e.g., needs, goals, personality). 3 Views of Motivation
Situation – Centered View Motivated behavior is primarily determined by situational factors.
Interactional View Motivated behavior results from the interaction of participant factors and situational factors.
Developing a Realistic View of Motivation Motivation is a key variable in learning, performance and rehabilitation contexts. Other physical and psychological factors beyond motivation influence behavior and must be considered. Some motivational factors are more easily influenced than others.
An individual’s orientation to strive for task success, persist in the face of failure, and experience pride in accomplishments. Achievement Motivation
“ A disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others.” Competitiveness
Keys: Competitiveness = Social evaluation or comparison Achievement motivation = Self-comparison or achievement
Four Theories of Achievement Motivation in Sport & Exercise Contexts
Need Achievement Theory
Attribution Theory How people explain their successes and failures Attributions
Achievement Goal Theory Outcome goal orientation (or competitive goal orientation) focuses on comparing performance with others and defeating others. Achievement goals Task goal orientation (or mastery goal orientation) focuses on improving relative to one’s own past performances.
Keys in Rehab Setting Focus extra attention on task-oriented goals. Foster mastery or task motivational climates. Achievement Goal Theory
Keys in Rehab Setting People are motivated to feel worthy or competent. Feelings of competence and worth, as well as perceptions of control, determine motives. Competence Motivation Theory
What Theories of Achievement Motivation Tell Us About High Achievers 1. High motivation to achieve success 2. Low motivation to achieve failure 3. Focuses on the pride of success 4. Attributes success to stable and internal factors within one’s control 5. Attributes failure to unstable and external factors outside one’s control
6. Has high perceived competence and feels that achievement is within his or her control 7. Seeks out challenges and able competitors/tasks 8. Performs well in evaluative conditions
1. Low motivation to achieve success 2. High motivation to achieve failure 3. Focuses on shame and worry that may result from failure What Theories of Achievement Motivation Tell Us About Low Achievers 4. Has low perceived competence and feels that achievement is outside his or her control
5. Ascribes success to unstable and external factors outside one’s control 6. Ascribes failure to stable and internal factors within one’s control 7. Usually adopts outcome goals 8. Avoids challenges; seeks out very difficult or very easy tasks/ competitors 9. Performs poorly in evaluative conditions
Five Guidelines for Building Motivation in Rehabilitation
Guideline 1 Both situations and traits motivate people. Guidelines for Building Motivation
Guideline 2 People have multiple motives for involvement.
Guidelines for Building Motivation Guideline 3 Change the environment to enhance motivation.
Guideline 4 Leaders influence motivation, directly and indirectly. Guidelines for Building Motivation
Guideline 5 Use behavior modification methods to change undesirable participant motives. -Positive reinforcements -Appropriate attributions -Goal –setting (task vs. outcome focus) Guidelines for Building Motivation