The coach/teacher should not just develop skills, but a self-belief that success is achievable. Many of the aspects of sports psychology you have studied are focused towards this particular aim.
Self efficacy is seen as the belief in one’s ability in relation to a specific task in a specific situation. Self efficacy = situation specific confidence
Imagine a young swimmer, she may have high levels of self- efficacy when swimming in the shallow end of the pool, when she knows she can touch the bottom if needed. She may not experience high levels of self- efficacy when she first performs in the deep end. Therefore the same performer may feel confident in some aspects of a skill, although may not feel confident in other skill areas due to the specific situation. Can you give another example?
Another example would be a gymnast may feel confident at floor work, but experience low levels of self-efficacy when faced with the vault
List five sports you have played. Now rank the order according to your personal level of self efficacy or confidence. How did you justify this? According to Bandura, expected levels of self efficacy experienced are developed by four sources of information!!!
PAST PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE (modelling) VERBAL PERSUASION EMOTIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL EFFICACY EXPECTATIONS SPORTING PERFORMANCE Bandura – Self Efficacy model
PAST PERFORMANCE ACCOMPLISHMENTS (consist of past experiences) - example : Taking a penalty (practice) if this is successful then this leads to greater self-efficacy at this particular task in the future. VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE (modelling) (consist of what has been observed in others performing a similar skill) - example : Observing a player in your team dribbling if the model is of similar age /ability and is successful then this may lead to greater self-efficacy
VERBAL PERSUASSION Encouragement can lead to greater self-efficacy, especially if the person giving encouragement is of a higher status compared with the performer EMOTIONAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL if arousal is too high (state anxiety) this could lead to low self-efficacy mental rehearsal / physical relaxation could – lead to greater confidence – and a calmer approach
Whilst self efficacy is important and relates to specific situations, Vealey suggested a sports specific model of self confidence. Her proposal investigates the relationship between levels of competitiveness and self-confidence in sport.
The model suggests that each individual will approach the situation from a different perspective due to several factors. Everyone has innate levels of confidence, known as trait sport confidence (SC-trait) which is applied to an objective sport situation. The level of confidence is also influenced by the players competitive orientation. This refers to how the individual perceives success and the type of goals used to judge their performance When the trait sport confidence and the competitive orientation combine the result is the actual level of confidence or self-efficacy experienced by the performer. This is known as state sport confidence
Trait sport confidence - The usual level of self-confidence example : a discus thrower is generally confident about making a throw Competitive orientation - The perceived opportunity to achieve a sport performance example : the discus thrower is motivated by a national championships to throw well State sport confidence - The level of self confidence related to a specific situation example : the discus thrower feels confident because the wind is in the right direction
Experience early success Observe demonstrations by competent others of similar ability Set realistic but challenging goals Set performance goals rather than outcome goals Offer verbal encouragement and positive feedback Develop effective stress management techniques Use mental rehearsal Use attributions correctly by attributing failure to controllable, unstable factors