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The Motivational Climate, Athlete Motivation, and Implications for the Quality of Sport Engagement Joan L. Duda & Darren C. Treasure Chapter 4 “You can't.

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Presentation on theme: "The Motivational Climate, Athlete Motivation, and Implications for the Quality of Sport Engagement Joan L. Duda & Darren C. Treasure Chapter 4 “You can't."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Motivational Climate, Athlete Motivation, and Implications for the Quality of Sport Engagement Joan L. Duda & Darren C. Treasure Chapter 4 “You can't put a limit on anything. The more you dream, the farther you get.” Michael Phelps U.S. Olympic swimmer, 22 medals Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

2 Motivation The foundation of sport performance and achievement Athletes can’t achieve full potential without it Complex and multifaceted Shapes how the athlete experiences and responds to sport Often misunderstood Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

3 Motivation (cont.) Variable Depends on the diverse ways in which athletes interpret their sport-related experiences Stems from behavioral patterns Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

4 Evaluating Motivation within an Individual Quantity of motivation How “into” the sport + how well she or he is currently performing Quality of motivation Sustained positive engagement in sport Degree of enjoyment Psychological and physiological benefit associated with sport involvement Both linked to how athletes think before, during, and after sport experience Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

5 Theoretical Frameworks for Motivation 1.Achievement goal frameworks 2.Self-determination theory Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

6 Achievement Goal Framework Perceptions of competence (how able we think we are) + Differences in goal perspectives (ways in which individuals judge their competence and perceive success) = QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF OUR MOTIVATION Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

7 Achievement Goal Framework (cont.) The result of both individual differences and situational factors Two central goal perspectives govern the way athletes think about achievement and guide subsequent decision making and action: Task Ego Fluctuate constantly! Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

8 Achievement Goal Framework: Task Involved Athlete is focused on what he or she is doing and is thinking primarily about how to accomplish the task: Gain skills and knowledge Exhibit effort Perform at one’s best Experience personal improvement If achieved, the individual feels competent and successful Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

9 Achievement Goal Framework: Ego Involved Relies on social comparisons with others Athlete preoccupied with the adequacy of ability and superior competence compared to others The athlete’s focus is on whether they’re good enough (if confidence is low) and how to prove (rather than improve) his or her high level of competence (if confidence is high) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

10 Task Involvement VS. Ego Involvement The athlete will think, act, and feel in a motivated manner regardless of her or his level of perceived ability Expected to possess high quality motivation Can work like task involvement, BUT… When the possibility of demonstrating superior competence is “slim to none,” the quantity and quality of motivation is diminished Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

11 Goal Orientation Occurrence Goal orientations are not bipolar opposites, rather independent dimensions High ego/low task High task/low ego High task/high ego Low task/low ego Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

12 Significance of Goal Orientation Task and ego goal orientations have different behavioral, cognitive, and affective patterns in sport Both impact short-term performance and the quantity and quality of long- term participation Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

13 Impacts of Goal Orientation Task Orientation Related to positive motivational outcomes (i.e. effort is a cause of success) Associated with the belief that one’s level of physical ability is changeable or malleable (i.e. training leads to increased ability) Ego Orientation Associated with boredom, the belief that deception is a cause of success, and reported anxiety Ability considered to be an important determinant of success (i.e. sport competence is stable and a “gift”) Which lends itself to the idea that training matters? Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

14 Impacts of Goal Orientation (cont.) Ego Avoidance Goal Athlete does not want to reveal his or her inferiority Linked to: Greater fear of failure Belief that sport ability is unchangeable Perceptions of an ego-involving climate Heightened anxiety Lower intrinsic motivation Amotivation Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

15 Impacts of Goal Orientation (cont.) Ego-involved athletes tend to question their competence It is all about their perception, not actual ability! Can lead fear of failure in the sport domain Athlete does not want to look incompetent Centering on ego goals translates into negative processes and outcomes when the athlete’s superiority is not demonstrated Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

16 Impacts of Goal Orientation (cont.) 2x2 Achievement Goal Framework Distinguishes approach and avoidance facets of task (or mastery-based) goals Task Approach Goal Focus is on the development of personal competence and realization of task mastery Linked to positive perceptions Task Avoidance Goal Athlete tries to avoid demonstrating self-referenced incompetence Linked to negative processes and outcomes Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17 Sport Context Motivational climate is the perceived structure of the environment Can make it more or less likely that a particular goal state is manifested in training or competition Affects the achievement patterns of individuals through their view of what goals are reinforced in that setting Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

18 Sport Context (cont.) Task-involving climate: Athletes perceive coach reinforces high effort, cooperation among team members, learning and improvement, and all members contribute Linked with greater enjoyment, adaptive coping strategies, perceived competence, team cohesion, higher moral function Also linked to self-handicapping Making excuses to explain poor performances Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

19 Sport Context (cont.) Ego-involving climate: Athletes perceive their coach to provide less social support and positive feedback and be more punishment oriented Linked to greater anxiety and performance-related worry, dropping out of sport, greater peer conflict, greater self- handicapping, and lower levels of moral functioning A highly ego-involving motivational climate may cause some athletes to have doubts about their sport competence and question their worth as a person overall Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

20 Goal Theory Implications for Practice Implement strategies that encourage athletes to focus on gains in skill or knowledge, monitoring effort levels, and self- referenced criteria for success Always critically evaluate what you do in terms of task and ego goals Coaches, sport psychologists, and parents Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

21 Self-Determination Theory Approach to understanding motivation and behavior in sport Individual acts (the level of self-determination) + Types of motivation = Different outcomes Social conditions support or undermine optimal functioning and well-being via the satisfaction of basic psychological needs Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

22 Self-Determination Continuum Amotivation No internal or external motivation - no perceived reasons for participation Autonomous Motivation (Intrinsic): Participation is self-determined Involvement revolves around the inherent pleasure of doing the activity Associated with positive and maximal engagement Controlled Motivation (Extrinsic): Determinants of sport engagement are external Dependent on rewards, which are usually social or material Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

23 Self-Determination Continuum (cont.) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

24 Self-Determination Theory (cont.) The range of the athlete’s self-determined reasons for engaging in sport is dependent on his or her degree of basic need satisfaction Everyone needs to feel competent, autonomous, and connected with others within our various life domains Matters in sport, too Has a lot to do with the coach Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

25 Self-Determination Theory (cont.) Highly controlling coaches tend to intimidate their athletes, run their team in an autocratic fashion, and use extrinsic rewards to control the behavior of the players on their team Athletes feel incompetent Coaches who are autonomy supportive ask for athlete input, offer choices, provide rationale for their requests, and downplay the presence extrinsic rewards Athletes feel respected Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

26 Pros and Cons Some athletes play sport for intrinsic reasons You need high levels of intrinsic motivation for long-term engagement with sport What is the effect of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation? It depends… Rewards can diminish intrinsic interest, but they can also foster intrinsic motivation Depends on the individual athlete Extrinsic rewards are controlling Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

27 Implications for Practice Perceived adequate ability, feelings of respect, and autonomy fuel intrinsic motivation Show caution when using extrinsic reinforcements There are other ways to foster an athlete’s self- determination Socially supportive sport environments Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


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