2CONFIDENCE IN SPORTConfidence in sport is a ‘belief in your ability to master a situation’According to Vealey confidence is based on:1 PersonalityYour level of competitiveness and achievement motivation2 ExperienceYour amount of past success on the task and your belief in your ability to succeed in future3 SituationPlaying at home or away for example
3TRAIT V STATE CONFIDENCE Trait confidence is innate confidence shown in most situationsState confidence is situation specific, e.g. taking a penaltyThe interaction between these two is important. A naturally confident hockey player who has taken many penalty flicks before will be confident of scoring from the spot in future games.
4CONFIDENCE: SELF EFFICACY THEORY According to Bandura four factors affect confidence in any situation:1 Performance accomplishmentsWhat you have done before2 Vicarious experienceSeeing others do it3 Verbal persuasionEncouragement4 Emotional arousalYour level of anxietyIf all four factors are positive then a highly satisfactory performance will result
5Give accurate demonstrations PROMOTING CONFIDENCETaking into account the four influences on self efficacy, how could a coach develop confidence in his or hers players?Set attainable yet challenging goalsShow similar aged role models successfully doing the taskAttribute success internallyPromoting ConfidenceControl arousal with relaxation techniquesUse positive reinforcement and encouragementGive accurate demonstrationsAllow early success
6ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Achievement motivation is the desire with which competitive situations are approached or avoidedThe degree of competitiveness can be a personality trait, and/or it can be developed through sporting experiences and change with the situation
7ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION (cont…) Atkinson suggested two personality types:NACHNAFThe need to achieveThe need to avoid failureWelcome competitionAvoid competitionThey take risksTake the easy optionWelcome feedbackGive up easilyLike a challengeDo not take responsibility for their actionsTry harder after failure
8THE DEGREE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IS INFLUENCED BY THE TASK AND SITUATION Have I done it before?How easy?How will I feel if I succeed?What’s the incentive?TaskHow hard?COMPETITIVENESSHow motivated am I?Am I in a familiar environment?Place the influences on achievement motivation listed above in rank order according to how important they are in promoting competitiveness and confidence.