2 Functional Requirements Strength and stabilityResistance to weather and ground moistureDurability and freedom from maintenanceFire safetyResistance to passage of heatResistance to the passage of sound
3 Strength & StabilityStrength of floor depends on the characteristics of the materials used for the structure of floor. Ex: timber, steel or concreteFloor must be strong enough to support the dead load and imposed load of the floor.Timber floor suitable for small imposed load , small spans and for single family building not more than three storey.Reinforced concrete floor suitable for larger imposed load and wider spans , and both for strength in support and resistance to fire.Floor should have adequate stiffness against gross deflection under load
4 Resistance to weather and ground moisture The ground floor of building (heated building) will tend to encourage moisture from the ground below to rise and make the floor damp and feel cold and uncomfortable.In the former instance, a concrete slab alone may be sufficient barrier.In the latter instance, waterproof membrane placed on, in, or under the concrete slab will be necessary to prevent moisture rising to the surface of floor.
5 Durability and freedom from maintenance Ground floors protected against rising moisture and upper floors which solidly supported and protected, should be durable for the expected life of the building and require little maintenanceFire safetySuspended upper floors should provide resistance to fire for a period adequate for the escape of the occupants from the building.Estimated periods of resistance to fire is from 0.5 to 4 hours, depending on the size and use of the building.Generally, timber floor provides a lesser period of the resistance to fire compared to a reinforced concrete floor.
6 Resistance to the passage of sound Resistance to passage of heat The low mass of a timber floor transmit airborne sound more readily compared to a high mass concrete floor.The sound absorption of a floor can be improved by carpet or felt, and a ceiling by the use of one of the absorbent ‘acoustic’ tile or panel finishes.Resistance to passage of heatA floor should provide resistance to transfer of heat where there is normally a significant air temperature difference on the opposite sides of the floor.Both hardcore and a damp-proof membrane on or under the oversite concrete will assist in preventing the floor being damp and feeling cold.
7 Type of Floor Timber floor - solid timber floor - timber laminated floorConcrete floor (Solid Ground Floor)
8 Solid timber floorSolid hardwood floors are made of planks milled from a single piece of timber and originally used for structural purposes.Solid wood floors have a thicker wear surface and can be sanded and finished more times than an engineered wood floor.Wood actually is sponge material in micro structure.It is very sensitive to surroundings like humidity, dampness, temperature . Normally, expanding, shrinkage, color fading, more or less can not be avoided.
9 Timber laminated floor A laminate is a thin layer of material laminated to a thicker material.In the case of laminate timber flooring, the laminate is a timber look-alike layer of paper.Laminate timber flooring consists of four layers:4 - Base layer is a thin, water-proof film that stabilizes the board and adds an extra layer of waterproofing.3 - Core layer is made of either water-resistant medium density fibreboard (MDF) or high density fibreboard (HDF).2 - Third layer is the paper image of the design. In laminate timber flooring, this is a highly realistic four colour photograph of actual timber.1 - Top layer is composed of a mixture of melamine and aluminium oxide.
10 Advantages:-✓ Very affordable alternative to true timber, still offering the same ambience and colour to real timber.✓ Incredibly hard wearing, yet warm under foot. Laminate is resistant to high heels and most furniture marks.✓ Can be easily installed by any handyman, not just professional installers.
11 Concrete floor (Solid Ground Floor) Solid Ground can be classified into;Hard coreBlindingConcrete bed or slabConcrete block/inner wallOuter wallHardcore infill;Damp-proof membraneSand blindingConcrete slab
12 Concrete Floor :Hardcore Purpose is to fill empty space occurs during excavation.Act against capillary action of moistureUsually laid in mm layers to the required depthIf necessary, using roller to compact to prevent any unacceptable settlement.
13 Concrete Floor : Blinding Use to even off the surface of hardcore if a damp-proof membrane is to be placed under the concrete bed.Generally consist of fine ash/sand/weak concreteIt will prevent the damp-proof membrane from being punctured by the hardcoreProvide a true surface from which the reinforcement can be position.
14 Concrete Floor : Concrete bed Unreinforced or plane in situ concrete, 100 –150 mm thickReinforced concrete, 150mm minimum.
15 TILINGA tile is a manufactured piece of hard-wearing material such as ceramic, stone, metal, or even glass.Tiles are generally used for covering roofs, floors, walls, showers, or other objects such as tabletops.For the floor finishing, tile is commonly made of ceramic, porcelain, natural stone and mosaic.
16 Ceramic TileCeramic tiles are made from a blend of clays and silicones pressed into shape and then fired in a kiln to produce tough, hard wearing tiles that are resistant to water, spillages and stains.They don’t require any sealing or polishing and are easily wiped clean so are ideal for walls and floors, bathrooms and kitchens.For indoor use, they provide a tough decorative surface that looks great, and they are maintenance free as well as long lasting.
17 Porcelain TilePorcelain tiles are beautiful to look at and are extremely hard wearing.They are made from pure materials fired at very high temperatures to produce tiles that are stain, scratch, shock, frost and chemical resistant.Porcelain tiles tend to need to be sealed before and after grouting to ensure they maintain their beautiful appearance.
18 Stone Tilemade from naturally occurring substances, which means each tile has a slight variation in color and texture, giving them a very distinctive look.The most popular types of natural stone tiles are:Limestone – classical soft, warm creamy white in appearanceTravertine – a form of limestone that comes in darker natural shades of beige, cream and soft brownSlate – formed from volcanic ash to produce a very durable stone in dark and earthy coloursMarble – crystal structures produce an almost translucent appearance at the surface, for a classically luxurious lookGranite – one of the hardest stones, extremely beautiful and available in many colours
19 Mosaic Tile Mosaic tiles come in sheets comprising many small tiles. The sheets can be cut down to your required size or into strips to be used as a border or feature.They can be glazed or unglazed and come in a choice of materials and can be used in a variety of ways including:as a feature panel behind a basin or focal point in your kitchenas a tile border in the bathroom or kitchenMosaic tiles are also useful for fitting to un-conforming shapes such as a purposely curved wall, wet room floor or even to an uneven surface.