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Presentation on theme: "NGfL CYMRU GCaD FLOOR COVERINGS."— Presentation transcript:


2 NGfL CYMRU GCaD The floor coverings discussed in this presentation relate only to commercial buildings. FLOOR COVERINGS

3 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Floor coverings can be considered to be of either an applied, in-situ or timber finish. Applied finishes are derived from products such as:- - Quarry or ceramic tiles. - Linoleum. - Carpet, whether on a roll or in tile form. - Paint. In-situ finishes are formed during construction. Examples are concrete floors commonly found in industrial warehouses. Timber floors can be made from timber blocks, boards or sheet. FLOOR COVERINGS

4 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Quarry tiles are square in shape, and are manufactured from clay. They are impervious to water and spillage and are hard wearing. FLOOR COVERINGS

5 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Threshold strips are used to cover the interface between different floor coverings. The strip shown above is made from aluminium. The white coloured material between the tiles is known as grout. FLOOR COVERINGS

6 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Top image: quarry tiles being laid during the construction of a new building. After being laid, the tiles are protected from damage as shown in the bottom image. FLOOR COVERINGS

7 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Ceramic tiles are manufactured from limestone, and are fired twice during the manufacturing process. The first firing forms the tile, and the second forms the tiles surface to provide a finish. The next slide shows ceramic tiles being laid. FLOOR COVERINGS

8 NGfL CYMRU GCaD 1 3 2 1)Adhesive spread on concrete floor. 2)Tile positioned in adhesive. 3)Excess adhesive wiped off FLOOR COVERINGS

9 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Linoleum can be applied in either tile or sheet form. Non-slip linoleum is suitable for areas such as shower rooms, service corridors, kitchens etc. FLOOR COVERINGS

10 NGfL CYMRU GCaD In wet areas, such as showers or commercial kitchens, an upstand turns up vertically against a wall. The upstand prevents water from getting underneath, or behind the linoleum. FLOOR COVERINGS

11 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Where large areas of linoleum are laid, joints between sheets are heat welded together to form one continuous piece of linoleum. FLOOR COVERINGS

12 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Skirting boards can be sealed to provide a finish at the interface of linoleum and walls. FLOOR COVERINGS

13 NGfL CYMRU GCaD To cover areas such as stairs, strips of linoleum are cut to shape as shown right. FLOOR COVERINGS

14 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Stair nosings (left) cover the edge of stair treads, and edge trims (right) cover the sides (known as the string). Stair nosings are of a different colour to that of the stair covering. FLOOR COVERINGS

15 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Right: powder coated stair nosings fitted to a staircase with quarry tiles. FLOOR COVERINGS

16 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Above: carpet tiles fitted in a modern office building FLOOR COVERINGS

17 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Carpet tiles being laid on a raised floor. A water-based tackifier compound is laid on the raised floor 20 minutes before the carpet tiles are fitted. This does not adhere the tiles to the base, but will provide enough tack for the tiles stay in place. FLOOR COVERINGS

18 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Once new carpets are laid, they are sometimes covered for protection until the building is handed over to the owners. The above image shows recently-laid carpet tiles in a University building, a few weeks before handover. FLOOR COVERINGS

19 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Different coloured carpet tiles can be used to form walkways and access routes. FLOOR COVERINGS

20 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Lecture theatre being prepared for laying of carpet tiles. FLOOR COVERINGS

21 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Stair nosing being installed FLOOR COVERINGS

22 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Carpet tiles laid around ventilation ducts FLOOR COVERINGS

23 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Adhesive is used to fix carpet tiles. FLOOR COVERINGS

24 NGfL CYMRU GCaD The carpet tile is then cut to the required size. FLOOR COVERINGS

25 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Nosings are then fitted to the intersection of the step (going) and the riser. FLOOR COVERINGS

26 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Carpet tile fitting in a lecture theatre nearing completion. FLOOR COVERINGS


28 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Composite steel and concrete floors are widely used. FLOOR COVERINGS

29 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Steel decking is fixed to a structural frame. Steel mesh is laid on the steel deck. FLOOR COVERINGS

30 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Fresh concrete is placed around the mesh. The concrete is compacted to form a continuous structure. Concrete compaction ensures that any air in the concrete is removed, and that the concrete attains full strength. FLOOR COVERINGS

31 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Once the concrete begins to harden (known as curing) a machine called a power float is used to smooth the surface of the concrete. FLOOR COVERINGS

32 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Concrete floor after power floating FLOOR COVERINGS

33 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Additives can be introduced into concrete to provide increased hardness to the surface. This technique is frequently used in factories and warehouses. FLOOR COVERINGS

34 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Specialist paint can be used on concrete to mark walkways, safe areas around machinery and storage areas. FLOOR COVERINGS

35 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Floor screed can also be used as a floor covering: a mixture of water, sand and cement forms screed – also known as semi- dry. The minimum thickness required is 50mm. FLOOR COVERINGS


37 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Areas such as mezzanine floors can be covered with medium density fibreboard. FLOOR COVERINGS

38 NGfL CYMRU GCaD Other areas can be covered with timber floor boards, which are fitted to joists. FLOOR COVERINGS


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