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Are you In the Zone? A Model for Inquiry, the School Library, and the VELS Dr Ross J Todd Director, Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries.

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Presentation on theme: "Are you In the Zone? A Model for Inquiry, the School Library, and the VELS Dr Ross J Todd Director, Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries."— Presentation transcript:

1 Are you In the Zone? A Model for Inquiry, the School Library, and the VELS Dr Ross J Todd Director, Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey


3 Stay Focused Pick one Card It is YOUR card Think about YOUR card for 20 seconds Stay focused on YOUR card

4 Ross is now going To remove YOUR Card!

5 YOUR card has been removed

6 Lets Try Again: Pick Another Card Pick another Card It is YOUR card Think about YOUR card for 20 seconds Stay focused

7 Again, your card has been removed


9 THE CONTEXT FOR THE MODEL OF INQUIRY EVIDENCE-BASED LIBRARIANSHIP Evidence for Practice: identifying, critically appraising and incorporating research evidence from library science, education, and other disciplines, into daily practice. BUILDING EFFECTIVE PRACTICE Evidence in Practice: engaging with evidence derived from within daily practice; Teacher-librarians working diagnostically as work-place researchers and reflective practitioners. Maintaining practice. MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE PRACTICE Evidence of Practice: understanding and using professional practice – local and immediate - as a generator and source of evidence; evidence in terms of achievement of the VELS. DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVE PRACTICE

10 What Victorian Schools Are About STUDENT Learning Literacy Living STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: Learning Outcomes Knowledge-based Outcomes EFFECTIVE READERS AND WRITERS: Literacy PRODUCTIVE MEMBERS OF SOCIETY: Living VELS: the processes of physical, personal and social development and growth : Physical, Personal and Social Learning VELS: the branches of learning reflected in the traditional disciplines: Discipline-based learning VELS: the interdisciplinary capacities needed for effective functioning within and beyond school, grounded in reading, writing and thinking: Interdisciplinary Learning

11 What Victorian School Libraries Are About STUDENT Learning Literacy Living STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT: Learning School Libraries develop information-to-knowledge competencies so that students develop deep knowledge and deep understanding Personal competencies Resource-based competencies Thinking-based competencies Knowledge-based competencies EFFECTIVE READERS AND WRITERS: Literacy School libraries develop motivation, curiosity and passion for reading and writing in all formats Reading and writing to meet curriculum / content standards Free voluntary reading and writing THE KEY TO DEVELOPING DEEP KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTIVE MEMBERS OF SOCIETY: Living School libraries develop knowledge, competencies and responsibilities related to personal development and becoming a productive citizen Self development Productive citizen

12 Misfit or Perfect Match? THE SCHOOL: Knowledge - Declarative knowledge - Procedural knowledge Knowledge-based Outcomes - deep knowledge - deep understanding Competencies: mastery - content and skills - reading achievement - life skills Inquiry THE SCHOOL LIBRARY: Information Information Process Value-added outcomes: - lifelong learners - information literacy - independent learners Good Researchers

13 Are we there yet? School Libraries: emphasis on the found: locating, accessing, finding and evaluating stuff Little attention to doing something with the found stuff: the complex cognitive processes required to transform information into deep knowledge WHAT ARE THE OUTCOMES OF THIS? School libraries as zones of intellectual conflict, intellectual discontent; intellectual activism? (These are the keys to developing deep knowledge) Typically treat information literacy as a separate discipline (teacher teaches content and teacher librarian teaches information skills) Scope and sequence models of Information Literacy (akin to fixed schedules) Students do not go beyond the basic knowledge level of Blooms Taxonomy: recalling and recognizing information

14 Misfit or Perfect Match? THE VELS: KNOWLEDGE Investigate, design, make, suggest, create, generate, contribute, propose, draw and explain, plan, test, devise, predict, develop suggestions for improvements, conclude, apply, solve THE SCHOOL LIBRARY: INFORMATION Define, locate, select, organize, present, assess, reflect Time to think out sideside Xob eht fo

15 Kent State University Study School Librarian – Classroom Teacher Instructional Collaborations 140 participants (70 instructional teams) Documenting the collaboration of experience Part 1: Some background information about you Part 2: The class details Part 3: Planning your collaboration Part 4: Implementing your collaboration Part 5: The impact and outcomes of your collaboration Part 6: The future of your collaborations Lack of mutual intent: - teachers: to enhance student learning outcomes - school librarians: to enhance their position

16 So What? Need to rethink the instructional foundation and framework of the school library Work transformatively: Move beyond the traditional base-line of information and information literacy Information – to – Knowledge mindset Zone of Intervention: the critical point / need for instruction

17 VELS Knowledge Outcomes Two types of knowledge are meshed together through the VELS and are the essential outcomes of the VELS: Declarative Knowledge Procedural knowledge These together represent the interdisciplinary learning of the VELS

18 Declarative Knowledge Declarative Knowledge refers to the propositional knowledge (concepts and relationships) about a topic. KNOWING ABOUT These propositions can be factual, explanatory and conclusive / predictive / reflective, structured as a coherent and integrated whole. They are knowing about properties, manner, reason, outcome, causality, set membership, conclusion implication, prediction, value judgment and reflection. Deep knowledge and deep understanding; Moving beyond superficial stockpiling of descriptive facts to building and demonstrating complex understandings

19 Procedural Knowledge Procedural knowledge: refers to both the knowledge of, and application, of cognitive, behavioral and affective processes to build deep knowledge and understanding. - Personal and organizational competencies - Resource-based competencies - Technical / technological-based competencies - Critical thinking/reasoning-based competencies - Knowledge-based competencies - Communication-based competencies - Design and creative-based competencies = Key to Interdisciplinary Learning

20 Procedural Knowledges of the VELS Knowing how to do authentic research in a discipline – what are the central questions of a discipline; how disciplinary inquiry is undertaken to build deep knowledge and understanding Locating, accessing, selecting sources of information to build background knowledge Engaging with multiple viewpoints and dealing with conflicting information encountered in the inquiry process Selecting, evaluating and interacting with ideas in diverse sources to develop foundations for deep understandings Recognizing uncertainties, doubts, frustrations and knowing how to use them creatively and positively to build deep knowledge

21 Procedural Knowledges of the VELS Making choices about directions of inquiry Formulating focus questions and engaging with complex information sources pertinent to focus questions Applying critical thinking skills to identify, interrogate and construct ideas so that personal understandings emerge Verifying new knowledge through arguments, evidence, reflection Establishing evidence-based points of view and perspectives Understanding how to build and represent new knowledge in safe, ethical and responsible ways

22 Procedural Knowledges of the VELS Structuring and organizing and representing new knowledge in meaningful and appropriate ways Generating meaningful conclusions, imaginative solutions, action plans, predictions and Reflecting on new knowledge: what have I learned and what opportunities does this open up for further learning? Understanding of preferred learning styles & learning strengths and weaknesses, learning habits Understanding ethical frameworks for learning Using ICT for accessing, evaluating and engaging with ideas Using ICT for communicating knowledge & problem solving

23 Procedural Knowledges of the VELS Procedural knowledges of the VELS point to the critical / essential role of the school library as a zone of instructional intervention. VELS-BASED SCHOOL LIBRARY MESSION STATEMENT Learners actively searching for meaning and understanding learners constructing knowledge rather than passively receiving it learners directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge learners encountering alternative perspectives and conflicting ideas learners transferring new knowledge and skills to new circumstances learners taking ownership and responsibility for mastery of curriculum content and skills

24 Inquiry Learning An inquiry approach to learning is one where students actively engage with diverse and often conflicting sources of information and ideas to discover new ones, to build new understandings, and to develop personal viewpoints and perspectives. KNOWLEDGE OUTCOME It is underpinned by stimulating encounters with information – encounters which capture their interest and attention, and which motivate and direct their ongoing inquiry. INFORMATION FOUDATION

25 Guided Inquiry Carefully planned, closely supervised, targeted intervention(s) of an instructional team of teacher- librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum based inquiry units that gradually lead towards deep knowledge and understanding. Constuctivist approach to learning: staged, guided Based on understanding of: - How deep knowledge of a discipline is developed - Student information seeking and use Develops students competence with learning from a variety of sources; goal is deep knowledge Students not abandoned in the research process


27 Realms of Meaning Philip Phenix (McGraw Hill, 1964) Various fields of knowledge exhibit distinctive structures or patterns of meaning They have different ways of coming to know: how knowledge is gained in a subject, and how it is validated Different methods of inquiry, for creating new knowledge, and for validating claims to new knowledge How does the inquirer / investigator go about making discoveries on mathematics, biology, history, science? Developing new knowledge

28 What does this mean? Many different conceptions of the information-to- knowledge process Each discipline has its own unique conception / model of information literacy There is no one generic notion of what inquiry is = it is disciplinary specific There is no one-size-fits-all model of information literacy Need to rethink our approach to mediation and intervention

29 The Instructional Framework Based on Kuhlthaus Information Search Process The ONLY tested/validated model in our field (evidence for practice) The pletehora of simplistic models of information skills deny the complexity of the information-to-knowledge experience The Information Search Process provides a research-based instructional framework for understanding students journey of information seeking and knowledge building, and a basis for guiding and intervening to ensure students develop deep knowledge and deep understanding.

30 Information Search Process Kuhlthau, C. C. (2004). Seeking meaning: A process approach to library and information services. 2nd edition. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited. 1.Qualitative exploration of search process of high school seniors (1983) 2. Qualitative study of original sample after 4 years of college (1988) 3. Longitudinal study (1988) 4. Qualitative and quantitative study of high, middle and low achieving high school seniors (1989) 5. Validation Study: 385 academic, public, and school library users in 21 sites (1989)

31 Information Search Process Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or (affective) frustration direction/ disappointment doubt confidence Thoughtsvague focused (cognitive) increased interest Actions seeking relevant information seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting THE INFORMATON SEARCH PROCESS

32 Stages of the ISP Effective information seeking occurs in seven stages. These stages are named for the primary task to be accomplished at each point in the process. Initiation: when confronted with an information need, students contemplate what they already know, what they want and need to find out Selection: students identify and select general topics which will guide their information seeking to satisfy their information need. Exploration: students investigate information on a general topic in order to extend personal understanding and to form a focus

33 Formulation: students become aware of the various dimensions, issues, ramifications of the initiating question and begin to form their own focused perspective of the subject under study. Collection: students gather information that defines, extends and supports the focus that they have formed. Interest and confidence commonly increases as they gain a sense of ownership and expertise in the subject. Presentation: students prepare to apply / share what they have discovered. Assessment: students reflect on what they have learned to discover what went well and what might be improved. Stages of the ISP

34 Mediation and Intervention Intervention centers on the way in which mediators become involved in the constructive process of another person … in information seeking and use (Kuhlthau, 204, p. 127). Zone of Intervention: That area in which an information user can do with advice and assistance what he or she cannot do alone or can do only with great difficulty. Intervention vs Independent Learning


36 Building Declarative Knowledge Goal: Propositional Knowledge: factual, explanatory, conclusive, predictive, reflective (VELS DISCIPLINE-BASED LEARNING) Existing Knowledge (limited) Building background knowledge Encountering / investigating multiple viewpoints and perspectives, dealing with conflicting knowledge Focused knowledge building and knowledge authentication (quality arguments, use of evidence) Structuring new knowledge Representation of new, deep knowledge in meaningful structures and formats Communicating new knowledge Knowledge reflections, knowledge actions, knowledge solutions

37 The Zones of Intervention The stages of the Information Search Process are potential zones of instructional intervention in the school library to develop deep knowledge and understanding through the school library. The instructional interventions are KNOWLEDGE_BASED interventions to provide students with the necessary procedural knowledge to construct deep knowledge and understanding of their topics. Specific instructional interventions are determined by the curriculum outcomes to be achieved, and the cognitive, affective, and behavioral needs of the learners to help them achieve these outcomes. The starting point for the interventions is NOT information literacy skills, nor some predefined scope-and-sequence IL framework The instructional interventions guide students in their inquiry and support them in their process of developing deep knowledge and understanding of their topics

38 Information Search Process Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or (affective) frustration direction/ disappointment doubt confidence Thoughts vague focused (cognitive) increased interest Actions seeking relevant information seeking pertinent information (physical) exploring documenting Information-to-knowledge experience THE INFORMATON SEARCH PROCESS Stages of the Information Search Process represent critical Zones of Intervention

39 INTERVENTIONS ISP : INITIATION Understanding how a discipline builds knowledge Understanding knowledge requirements of task: task analysis rubrics Establishing existing / prior knowledge: novice knowledge (what I know about) Mapping existing knowledge: Central concepts and relationships: concept mapping, mind mapping, Venn diagrams Building engagement; Developing curiosity and motivation Understand real world relevance and importance of the enquiry Dealing with the affective dimensions: doubt, uncertainty Task organization, time, process and effort management; Know when, where, and how to get help and guidance

40 Initiation (unit, research task, learning activity) The starting point for inquiry is not: - lets do Dewey - Here are some good web sites - Defining your needs - The librarys research / information process The starting point is - understanding the knowledge outcomes - understanding the disciplinary-based knowledge building process - building interest, engagement, ownership - managing cognitive, behavioral and affective requirements

41 INTERVENTIONS The Jazz JigSaw Students see that collecting facts is the beginning of meaningful inquiry, not the end point Basis for personal choice

42 INTERVENTIONS ISP : INITIATION Topics of interest to me Intriguing factorsPositivesNegativesRank Rank your topics on a scale of 1 – 5 (1 = of little interest; 5 = very interesting) Circle your two most interesting topics Explain your choice in your conference with your class teacher / teacher-librarian

43 Read View Listen Connect I didnt know that! Questions I have??? I agree / disagree I wonder …. Developing Background Knowledge, Interest, Motivation


45 INTERVENTIONS ISP : SELECTION Sources to build background knowledge: appropriateness & quality of sources - the are likely to be different sources to building deep knowledge use of technology tools to seek, access & evaluate sources Read with understanding the major concepts and relationships in topics Selecting content based on reading ability and content requirements: how do I know what is important? Constructing a richer mental map of the knowledge terrain: systematic recording, organizing and evaluating initial ideas – not just random stockpiling of facts – graphical organizers Developing openness to new ideas, diverse perspectives Engaging in inquiry through reflection: I didnt know that; I agree / disagree; I wonder that; Questions I have Framing questions appropriate to the discipline of study to guide the further investigation

46 INTERVENTIONS ISP : EXPLORATION Building a bigger picture, establishing interconnections Encountering multiple viewpoints and perspectives; dealing with conflicting knowledge; Respecting and appreciating diverse cultural knowledges Verifying and clarifying existing ideas Develop self-discipline to work alone or in teams as needed

47 Dealing With Conflicting Information to Develop Knowledge Central Questions Source 1 eg encycl Source 2 eg Poor quality web site Source 3 eg High quality web site Source 4 eg Newspaper Source 5 High quality print source What I can say? Evidence for my statement? who what when where why how result

48 INTERVENTIONS ISP : FORMULATION Focusing the knowledge building task Developing the focus question(s) and formulating personal knowledge outcomes Develop real world justifications for research choices Constructing the abstract / knowledge plan of the inquiry Planning the structure of the inquiry

49 INTERVENTIONS ISP : COLLECTION ************Knowledge building interventions************* Selection of sources: pertinent, complex information rather than superficial information matched to specific focus; Collecting data from disciplinary specific modes of inquiry: interviews, surveys, experiments, observation, journaling Identification of central ideas and mapping relationships: complex relational note taking not fact gathering Use of a variety of analytical methods: cause/effect; pro/con; error analysis; compare/contrast to sort, organize and structure ideas Identification of arguments and evidences, counter arguments and counter evidences Develop conclusions & positions; posit actions, implications and solutions; reflect on these in terms of original knowing

50 Forming An Opinion


52 Spot the Difference (

53 TRANSFORMING AND ABSTRACTING INFORMATION TASK: In about 25 words, describe the differences between the two images PROCESS: Scan the information sources to begin the information selection task (background reading, context). Identify the essential information needed to complete the task. Key criteria for the selection of pertinent information = difference Undertake detailed comparative analysis and selection of pertinent information; mark this information on one of the images. Create a list that describes in words the differences between the images (transformation from visual to textual information). Carefully examine your list and sort the ideas into the lists into several groups. Give each conceptual grouping a label that characterizes the information in each category. Complete the writing task.

54 Developing the Argument

55 Model of the Argument Whats your information about? (I) CHOCOLATE Whats your main point? (I-C UNIT) CHOCOLATE ISNT GOOD FOR YOUR HEALTH Whats your basis for saying that? (W) I GET ACNE AND I PUT ON WEIGHT What other evidence can you provide (B) CHOCOLATES INGREDIENTS ARE NOT GOOD FOR YOU Does this happen to everyone? (Q) DEPENDS ON HOW MUCH THEY EAT Some people wouldnt agree with you. What would they be likely to say? (R) CHOCOLATE GIVES ME ENERGY

56 INTERVENTIONS ISP : PRESENTATION Representation of new knowledge: what does good history, science, economics knowledge like? How is it typically presented in the real world? Principles / criteria for applying modes of representation – textual, visual, graphical – discipline requirements Structuring ideas into a coherent, integrated body of knowledge Using ICT tools to construct appropriate representations of new knowledge Using ICT tools, techniques and critical thinking skills to communicate new knowledge in appropriate ways – appropriate to the discipline

57 INTERVENTIONS ISP : ASSESSMENT Develop competencies to self-evaluate and monitor ones understanding: eg interventions which enable students to compare beginning and exit knowledge of a topic Knowledge reflection: declarative and procedural knowledge gained: mapping personal learning Reflections on: Knowledge depth; Knowledge structure and organization Reflections on: What helped / hindered in the learing process Personal insights gained Sharing lessons learned


59 Gr. 10 Canadian History Student Name: _________________________ Defining Moments Essay: Final Paper Rubric Criteria Level 1Level 2Level 3Level 4Mk s Introduction / Thesis -weak introduction of topic, thesis & subtopics -thesis is weak and lacks an arguable position -adequate introduction that states topic, thesis and some of the subtopics - thesis is somewhat clear and arguable -proficient introduction that states topic, thesis, and all subtopics in proper order - thesis is a clear and arguable statement of position -exceptional introduction that grabs interest of reader and states topic, thesis, and all subtopics in proper order - thesis is exceptionally clear, arguable, well developed, and a definitive statement /8 Quality of Information / Evidence -limited information on topic with lack of research, details or historically accurate evidence -some aspects of paper is researched with some accurate evidence from limited sources -paper is well researched in detail with accurate & critical evidence from a variety of sources -paper is exceptionally researched, extremely detailed and historically accurate with critical evidence from a wide variety of sources /12 Support of Ideas / Analysis -limited connections made between evidence, subtopics, counterarguments & thesis / topic -lack of analysis -some connections made between evidence, subtopics, counterarguments & thesis / topic showing analysis -consistent connections made between evidence, subtopics, counterarguments & thesis / topic showing good analysis -exceptionally critical, relevant and consistent connections made between evidence, subtopics, counter-arguments & thesis / topic showing excellent analysis /10 Organization / Development of Ideas -paper lacks clear and logical development of ideas with weak transition b/w ideas and paragraphs -somewhat clear and logical development of subtopics with adequate transitions b/w paragraphs -clear and logical subtopic order that supports thesis with good transitions b/w paragraphs -exceptionally clear, logical, mature, and thorough development of subtopics that support thesis with excellent transition b/w paragraphs /10 Conclusion-lack of summary of topic, thesis & subtopics with weak concluding ideas -adequate summary of topic, thesis and some subtopics with some final concluding ideas -good summary of topic, thesis and all subtopics with clear concluding ideas -excellent summary of topic (with no new information), thesis & all subtopics in proper order with concluding ideas that leave an impact on reader /5 Language Conventions - inconsistent grammar, spelling and paragraphing throughout paper -paper has some errors in grammar, spelling and paragraphing -paper is clear, with mostly proper grammar, spelling and paragraphing -paper is very concise, clear, with consistently proper grammar, spelling and paragraphing /5 Footnotes-inconsistent use of footnotes with limited details and improper format - sometimes inconsistent use of footnotes with limited details -consistent & correct format inserted to validate evidence -proper detailed format always used consistently & correctly to validate evidence in paper /5 Bibliography-lack of proper format and limited details with many sources missing or incomplete -some errors in MLA format with most sources shown and a variety of sources -mostly proper MLA format used in alphabetical order with all sources shown and a variety of sources -proper, detailed MLA format always used in alphabetical order with all sources shown and a wide variety of sources /5 Total 60 / 2 = / 30 Source:

60 Implementing Guided Inquiry: Key Strategies Initiated though compelling situations which provide challenge and opportunity. Focus on identifying and solving intellectual and/or real-world problems learning activities closely resemble the ways that students will be expected to use their knowledge and skills in the real world Exercise some choice over the specific questions they want to answer and how to present their new understandings.

61 Implementing Guided Inquiry: Key Strategies Attempt is made to connect with students background knowledge. Instructional activities involve the students in thinking, acting, and reflecting, discovering and linking ideas Instructional activities model and provide opportunity to experience the knowledge construction process. opportunities for sustained dialogue and feedback

62 Cycle of Continuous Improvement Few will have the greatness to bend history; but each of us can work to change a small portion of events, and in the total of all those acts will be written the history of this generation Robert F Kennedy The CISSL Team are watching you!

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