Presentation on theme: "Based on the work of Ross Todd and Carol Gordon"— Presentation transcript:
1Based on the work of Ross Todd and Carol Gordon Transforming information into deep knowledge and deep understanding: A Guided Inquiry approach – the school library and the Victorian Essential Learning StandardsBased on the work of Ross Todd and Carol Gordon
2Introduction the student as an “inquiring learner,” and An examination of the Victorian Essential Learning Standards, identifies inquiry as central to their structure and philosophy:the student as an “inquiring learner,” andthe emphasis on “inquiry” in the discipline-based domains.Inquiry, of course, is also central to the role of the library- where the teacher-librarian provides the student with the skills to become a successful, independent inquirer.
3With this heavy emphasis on inquiry and the integration of the personal, social and discipline-based strands, a number of questions arise for the teacher-librarian:How does the library target its program and services to support the strands?How do we assess the interdisciplinary and personal learning standards?How does the library provide leadership for bringing all this together?
4Information Literacy and Victorian Essential Learning Standards The Victorian Essential Learning Standards (VELS) are student centered and inquiry based.The VELS encourage students to think, reflect and develop deep knowledge and skills in the same way as historians, artists,mathematicians, and scientists do.The VELS acknowledge that each discipline has its own mode of inquiry.This, of course, is information literacy by another name.
5The VELS is based on an understanding of how students learn. Recent research has provided new understanding of the learning process and the development of competent performance in different intellectual domains, with the result that teaching and learning is focusing on student understanding and the application of knowledge to different contexts.Of particular importance as far as the Standards are concerned, is the way in which students progress from being novice to more expert learners as they move through school.
6Research suggests the development involves: ･noticing features and meaningful patterns of information;･acquiring relevant content knowledge that is organised in ways which reflect a deep understanding of the subject matter;･applying the knowledge in ways appropriate to context, rather than merely exercising one's memory;･retrieving important aspects of knowledge with a degree of automaticity;･and approaching new situations in flexible ways.VELS introduction
7Constructivist Learning and Guided Inquiry VELS calls for a constructivist approach to learning through the school library:Inquiry, not Information Literacy
8Constructivist learning occurs when: learners construct deep knowledge and deep understanding rather than passively receiving it;learners are directly involved and engaged in the discovery of new knowledge and development of new skills, attitudes and experiences;learners transfer new knowledge and skills to new circumstances;
9Guided Inquiry:“is carefully planned, closely supervised targeted intervention by an instructional team of teacher- librarians and teachers to guide students through curriculum-based inquiry units that build deep knowledge and deep understanding of a curriculum topic, and gradually lead towards independent learning.Guided Inquiry is grounded in a constructivist approach to learning, based on the Information Search Process for developing students’ competence with learning from a variety of sources while enhancing their understanding of the content areas of the curriculum.”Carol Kuhlthau
10Implementing Guided Inquiry: Key Strategies Initiated though compelling situations which provide challenge and opportunity.Focus on identifying and solving intellectual and/or real-world problemsLearning activities closely resemble the ways that students will be expected to use their knowledge and skills in the real worldExercise some choice over the specific questions they want to answer and how to present their new understandings.
11Implementing Guided Inquiry: Key Strategies (continued) Attempt is made to connect with students’ background knowledge.Instructional activities involve the students in thinking, acting, and reflecting, discovering and linking ideasInstructional activities model and provide opportunity to experience the knowledge construction process.Opportunities for sustained dialogue and feedback
12In our school library programs The starting point for inquiry is not:- “let’s do Dewey”- “Here are some good web sites”- Defining your needs- The library’s research / information processThe starting point is- understanding the knowledge outcomes- understanding the disciplinary-based knowledge building process- building interest, engagement, ownership- managing cognitive, behavioral and affective requirements
13The Instructional Framework This framework is based on Kuhlthau’s Information Search Process and is the only tested model in our field.The simplistic models of information skills deny the complexity of the information-to-knowledge experienceThe Information Search Process provides a research-based instructional framework for understanding students’ journey of information seeking and knowledge building, and a basis for guiding and intervening to ensure students develop deep knowledge and deep understanding.
14THE INFORMATON SEARCH PROCESS Tasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation→Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or(affective) frustration direction/ disappointmentdoubt confidenceThoughts vague →focused(cognitive) →increased interestActions seeking relevant information →seeking pertinent information(physical) exploring documenting
15Stages of the ISPEffective information seeking occurs in seven stages. These stages are named for the primary task to be accomplished at each point in the process.Initiation: when confronted with an information need, students contemplate what they already know, what they want and need to find outSelection: students identify and select general topics which will guide their information seeking to satisfy their information need.Exploration: students investigate information on a general topic in order to extend personal understanding and to form a focus
16Stages of the ISPFormulation: students become aware of the various dimensions, issues, ramifications of the initiating question and begin to form their own focused perspective of the subject under study.Collection: students gather information that defines, extends and supports the focus that they have formed. Interest and confidence commonly increases as they gain a sense of ownership and expertise in the subject.Presentation: students prepare to apply / share what they have discovered.Assessment: students reflect on what they have learned to discover what went well and what might be improved.Ross Todd
17Mediation and Intervention Intervention centers on the way in which “mediators become involved in the constructive process of another person … in information seeking and use” (Kuhlthau, 204, p. 127).Zone of Intervention: That area in which an information user can do with advice and assistance what he or she cannot do alone or can do only with great difficulty.Intervention vs Independent Learning
19Building Declarative Knowledge: (the knowledge about a topic, ie Building Declarative Knowledge: (the knowledge about a topic, ie. content)Goal: Propositional Knowledge: factual, explanatory, conclusive, predictive, reflective (VELS DISCIPLINE-BASED LEARNING)Existing Knowledge (limited) Building background knowledge Encountering / investigating multiple viewpoints and perspectives, dealing with conflicting knowledge Focused knowledge building and knowledge authentication (quality arguments, use of evidence) Structuring new knowledge Representation of new, deep knowledge in meaningful structures and formats Communicating new knowledge Knowledge reflections, knowledge actions, knowledge solutions
20The stages of the Information Search Process are potential zones of instructional intervention in the school library to develop deep knowledge and understanding through the school library.The instructional interventions are KNOWLEDGE_BASED interventions to provide students with the necessary procedural knowledge to construct deep knowledge and understanding of their topics.Specific instructional interventions are determined by the curriculum outcomes to be achieved, and the cognitive (thinking), affective (feelings), and behavioral needs of the learners to help them achieve these outcomes.The starting point for the interventions is NOT information literacy skills, nor some predefined scope-and-sequence Information Literacy frameworkThe instructional interventions guide students in their inquiry and support them in their process of developing deep knowledge and understanding of their topics
21Information-to-knowledge experience Information Search ProcessTasks Initiation Selection Exploration Formulation Collection Presentation→Feelings uncertainly optimism confusion clarity sense of satisfaction or(affective) frustration direction/ disappointmentdoubt confidenceThoughts vague →focused(cognitive) →increased interestActions seeking relevant information →seeking pertinent information(physical) exploring documentingInformation-to-knowledge experienceStages of the Information Search Process represent critical Zones of Intervention
22INTERVENTIONS: ISP: INITIATION Understanding how a discipline builds knowledgeUnderstanding knowledge requirements of task: task analysis rubricsEstablishing existing / prior knowledge: novice knowledge (what I know about)Mapping existing knowledge: Central concepts and relationships: concept mapping, mind mapping, Venn diagramsBuilding engagement; Developing curiosity and motivationUnderstand real world relevance and importance of the enquiryDealing with the affective dimensions: doubt, uncertaintyTask organization, time, process and effort management; Know when, where, and how to get help and guidance
23INTERVENTIONS: ISP : SELECTION Sources to build background knowledge: appropriateness & quality of sources - there are likely to be different sources to building deep knowledgeUse of technology tools to seek, access & evaluate sourcesRead with understanding the major concepts and relationships in topicsSelecting content based on reading ability and content requirements: how do I know what is important?Constructing a richer mental map of the knowledge terrain: systematic recording, organizing and evaluating initial ideas – not just random stockpiling of facts – graphical organizersDeveloping openness to new ideas, diverse perspectivesEngaging in inquiry through reflection: I didn’t know that; I agree / disagree; I wonder that; Questions I haveFraming questions appropriate to the discipline of study to guide the further investigation
24INTERVENTIONS:ISP:EXPLORATION Building a bigger picture, establishing interconnectionsEncountering multiple viewpoints and perspectives;dealing with conflicting knowledge;Respecting and appreciating diverse cultural knowledgesVerifying and clarifying existing ideasDevelop self-discipline to work alone or in teams as needed
25INTERVENTIONS: ISP: FORMULATION Focusing the knowledge building taskDeveloping the focus question(s) and formulating personal knowledge outcomesDevelop real world justifications for research choicesConstructing the abstract / knowledge plan of the inquiryPlanning the structure of the inquiry
26INTERVENTIONS: ISP : COLLECTION Knowledge building interventionsSelection of sources: pertinent, complex information rather than superficial information matched to specific focus;Collecting data from disciplinary specific modes of inquiry: interviews, surveys, experiments, observation, journalingIdentification of central ideas and mapping relationships: complex relational note taking not fact gatheringUse of a variety of analytical methods: cause/effect; pro/con; error analysis; compare/contrast to sort, organize and structure ideasIdentification of arguments and evidences, counter arguments and counter evidencesDevelop conclusions & positions; posit actions, implications and solutions; reflect on these in terms of original knowing
27INTERVENTIONS: ISP:PRESENTATION Representation of new knowledge: what does “good” history, science, economics knowledge like? How is it typically presented in the real world?Principles / criteria for applying modes of representation – textual, visual, graphical – discipline requirementsStructuring ideas into a coherent, integrated body of knowledgeUsing ICT tools to construct appropriate representations of new knowledgeUsing ICT tools, techniques and critical thinking skills to communicate new knowledge in appropriate ways – appropriate to the discipline
28INTERVENTIONS:ISP: ASSESSMENT Develop competencies to self-evaluate and monitor one’s understanding: eg interventions which enable students to compare beginning and exit knowledge of a topicKnowledge reflection: declarative and procedural knowledge gained: mapping personal learningReflections on: Knowledge depth; Knowledge structure and organizationReflections on: What helped / hindered in the learning processPersonal insights gainedSharing lessons learned
29Zone of InterventionThis model identifies “zones of instructional intervention” so that teacher-librarians can most effectively offer their knowledge, expertise and leadership for the achievement of the standards outlined in the VELS.A zone of intervention can be defined as that area in which a student can do with advice and assistance what he or she cannot do alone or can only do with great difficulty.Carol Kuhlthau
30The teacher-librarian and VELS The challenge for teacher-librarians is to embrace the inquiry model for each of the disciplines and identify the critical “zone of intervention.”
31The school library and VELS The “zone of intervention,” model identifies those areas that lend themselves to skill and knowledge development through the school library; where the expertise and instructional interventions of the teacher-librarian ensure that students reach the standards.
32Ross Todd: Zones of Intervention Ross Todd highlights “zones of intervention,” across all the domains and dimensions.These become the points at which teacher-librarians and classroom teachers can work together to develop an authentic research agenda.The role of the library just became even more important!
33The library instructional intervention process Identify zones of intervention where information-to-knowledge processes and knowledge outcomes are embedded and lend themselves to inquiry in the school library, leading to opportunities for developing authentic research;Understand how disciplinary knowledge is constructed;Frame information-to-knowledge processes (Information Literacy) in the language of the particular discipline and based on how knowledge is constructed in the discipline;Establish learning outcomes as established by the VELS, using the language of the standards; andConstruct instructional interventions, building-in approaches to assessment and evidence-based practice.
34The Zone of Intervention Model learners encounter alternative perspectives and conflicting ideas so that they are able to transform prior knowledge and experience into deep understandings;learners take ownership and responsibility for their ongoing learning and mastery of essential content and skills; andlearners contribute to social well being, the growth of democracy, and the development of a knowledgeable society. Victorian Essential Learning Standards
35The Information Search Process InitiationSelectionExplorationFormulationCollectionPresentationAssessment
36The Information Search Process (ISP) Possible Interventions InitiationSelectionExplorationFormulationCollectionPresentationAssessmentUnderstand how a discipline builds knowledge.Understanding knowledge requirements of task: task analysis rubricEstablishing existing / prior knowledge: novice knowledge (what I know about)Mapping existing knowledge: Central concepts and relationships: concept mapping, mind mapping, Venn diagramsBuilding engagement; Developing curiosity and motivationUnderstand real world relevance and importance of the enquiryDealing with the affective dimensions: doubt, uncertaintyTask organization, time, process and effort management; Know when, where, and how to get help and guidanceHow does a scientist conduct research?
37Why this model is so relevant to the Victorian Essential Learning Standards The Essential Learning Standards are a framework of essential learnings in two ways.First, the framework is based on the premise that there are three components of any curriculum which are necessary to enable students to meet the demands of a modern, globalised world.These components are:the processes of physical, personal and social development and growththe branches of learning reflected in the traditional disciplines; andthe interdisciplinary capacities needed for effective functioning within and beyond school.In the Standards, these components become the three core strands;Physical, Personal and Social Learning,Discipline-based Learning and Interdisciplinary Learning.
38Second, the Standards clarify the core elements of each component that students need to acquire if they are to succeed in further education, work and life. The traditional discipline strand is balanced in the Standards by a set of broader interdisciplinary capacities (the domains of Communication, Design, Creativity and Technology, Information and Communications Technology and Thinking), and linked to physical, personal and social development (the domains of Health and Physical Education, Interpersonal Development, Personal Learning and Civics and Citizenship), with all three strands being equally necessary.
39Together, the three strands provide the basis for students to develop deep understanding - an ability to take their learning and apply it to new and different circumstances.VELS introduction
40What does the inquiry process look like in Science? Multiple models of Information Literacy or Disciplinary Knowledge ConstructionWhat does the inquiry process look like in Science?What do scientists do when they research?
41The Science Knowledge Construction Process Develop curiosity and use scientific methods to establish generalizationsDiscovery of truth: what is asserted is either true or falseDescribes the world through activity of measurementEstablish existing understanding – truth claims: generalisations, lawsTo understand methods of scientific inquiry, need to understand how generalizations are obtained from data of observationFormulate hypotheses / questions based on available factsDesign and pursue investigation related to hypothesis / questionDevelop systematic approach to data collectionRecord observations from sources, environment, testingGenerate, validate, analyse, critique and interpret evidenceDraw valid conclusions: aim for generalityExplain how scientific knowledge is usedConstruct working models to demonstrate scientific ideasPresent results using data appropriate formats
42What does the inquiry process look like in Civics and Citizenship? Establish existing knowledge and develop background knowledgeDraw on a range of sourcesExplore and consider different perspectivesContest different opinionsArticulate and justify own opinion using supporting evidenceRefine own opinions, values and attitudesDevelop an action plan which demonstrates knowledgeApply knowledge and skills in a range of community based activities.
43What does the inquiry process look like in Mathematics? CONJECTURE, FORMULATION, SOLUTION, COMMUNICATIONFind ideas, examples, counter examplesExplore patternsDevelop conjecturesTest simple conjecturesExplain propositionsAnalyse reasonableness of points of viewDevelop generalisations by abstracting featuresTest truth statements and generalisationsDevelop models
44What does the inquiry process look like in Historical Reasoning and Interpretation? Own knowledge and experiencePlan investigationMake judgments about sourcesAscertain the facts - Fidelity of factsDrawing inferences from available evidenceGathering evidence from a variety of sourcesDocumenting evidence from sourcesCritically evaluate completeness of evidenceConstructing historical claims / hypothesesRepresenting values, cultures, literal and symbolic meaningsDealing with multiple, conflicting, partial interpretationsCommunicate understanding of history using conventional forms to report findings and conclusions
45Linking the Information Search Process to the Victorian Essential Learning Standards
46Integrating Thinking Processes, Personal Learning and ICT Interdisciplinary LearningThe Interdisciplinary Learning strand identifies a range of knowledge, skills and behaviours which cross disciplinary boundaries and are essential to ensuring students are prepared as active learners and problem-solvers for success at school and beyond.Victorian Essential Learning Standards.
47Thinking Processes Identify existing knowledge and experience Explore ideas and perspectives and collect information from a range of sources to build background knowledgeQuestion validity of sourcesGenerate, predict and test ideas / claimsEstablish points of viewResearch to develop reasoned arguments with supportive evidenceGenerate imaginative solutionsDocument changes in ideas
48Personal LearningDevelop an understanding of preferred learning stylesDevelop an understanding of strategies that enhance personal learningIdentify learning strengths and weaknessesGain and offer feedback on developing contentSet and monitor learning improvement goalsUnderstand how different perspectives and attitudes shape learningDevelop positive learning habitsUnderstand ethical frameworksRespond to criteria based evaluation
49Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Access, process, manage and present informationModel and control eventsConstruct new understandingsCommunicate with othersMonitor learning patternsProcess data to create solutions and information products that demonstrate understandingShare work with others in ethical, legal and respectful ways
50Pedagogy of Critical Thinking. The process of Critical Thinking. Observations.From a series of observations, we can come to establish:Facts.From a series of facts, or from an absence of fact, we make:Inferences.Testing the validity of our inferences, we can make:Assumptions.From our assumptions, we form our:Opinions.Taking our opinions, we use the principles of logic to develop:Arguments.And when we want to challenge the arguments of others, we employ:Critical Analysis(through which we challenge the observations, facts, inferences, assumptions, and opinions in the arguments that we are analyzing).Argument Analysis
51Guided Inquiry: principles, instructional design and strategies Design Principles for Instructional InterventionsInterventions are initiated though compelling situations and questionsInstruction puts emphasis on meaningful, authentic activities; focus on identifying and solving intellectual and/or real-world problemsLearning activities resemble ways that students will create and use knowledge and skills in the real worldStudents are more motivated to engage in their inquiry when they are able to exercise some choice over questions and how to present their new understandings
52Inquiry learning is responsive to students’ personal, social and cultural worlds, valuing differences and cultivating an inclusive community.
53BibliographyBendigo Senior Secondary College (2005) Researching together: Engaging minds, Carlton, School Library Association of Victoria, BSSCBoyko, Denise, Davey, Sandy & Macdonald, Joanne (2004) Teacher Librarian Program P-6. Carlton, School Library Association of VictoriaBurgess, Lesley. & Melissas, Shirley (2003) Making a difference. Carlton, School Library Association of VictoriaKuhlthau,Carol (2006) Information literacy through guided inquiry: Preparing students for the 21st century. Lisbon, Portugal, IASLManning, Mary (2006) Expert learning; It’s essential or Teacher-Librarians write new curriculum atMary Manning,(2007) Inquiring minds! Approaches to the Victorian Essential Learning Standards. Conference introduction.Todd, Ross J. & Gordon, Carol (2007) A guided inquiry approach for learning in the school library: Transforming information into deep knowledge and deep understanding. Rutgers, New Jersey, CISSL.Todd, Ross J. (2006) ‘School libraries and the VELS: Great minds at work’ in Synergy, 4 (2) pp 5-6.Todd, Ross J. (2006) School libraries and the VELS: Great minds at work atVictorian Essential Learning Standards at