Presentation on theme: "Experiential Learning Cycle"— Presentation transcript:
1 Experiential Learning Cycle Using experiential learning in designing training modules
2 Designing training with the ELC There are basic training design considerations that can be employed in order to appeal to various learning styles and the diverse needs of adult learners.This module explores the experiential learning cycle and basic training techniques and methods to incorporate into a training design.
3 Session ObjectivesBy the end of the session, the participant will be able to:Define seven components of an experiential training session;Describe at least ten basic training activities;Answer basic questions about training design and methods.
4 What do you know about how adults learn? What are the implicationsfor you as a trainer?
5 What are the implications for training given the differences in how adults and children learn? Adults find learning to be most enjoyable under a variety of circumstancesAdults have preferred learning stylesAdults draw upon their own life experiencesEffective training must incorporate adult education theories
7 The Experiential Learning Cycle Lead insEXPERIENTIAL LEARNINGExperiential learning is exactly what the name implies -- learning from experience. The experiential approach is learner-centered and allows the individual participants to manage and share responsibility for their learning with their teachers. Effective training strategies which incorporate experiential learning approaches provide opportunities for a person to engage in an activity, review this activity critically, draw some useful insight from the analysis, and apply the result in a practical situation.Experiential LearningThe experiential learning cycle developed by Kolb (1982) provides a good framework in developing curriculum and/or educational activities. It is based on the Deweyan notion that –“It is not enough to insist upon the necessity of experience, nor even of activity in experience. Everything depends upon the quality of the experience which is had (Dewey 1938:27).Experience: The learner has a concrete experience -- an event or exercise in which the learner actively participates.Reflection: The learner reflects on the experience, focusing on what happened, how he/she felt about it, and why the experience was (or was not) valuable and educational. Expansion: The learner expands on the experience by identifying the abstract idea, theories, and principles behind it. This step may include research, lectures, reading on related topics, analysis, and hypothetical application.Application: The learner transfers his/her newly knowledge and skills to situations in the "real world." This stage involves application and active experimentation.And the cycle begins again, never ending lifelong learningClose outs
8 The Experiential Learning Cycle – ELC provides opportunities for a person to engage in an activity,review the activity critically,draw useful insight from the analysisandapply the result in a practical situation.Experiential learning is exactly what the name implies…learning from experience.It is learner-centered and allows the participant to manage and share responsibility for learning with others.
9 The Experiential Learning Cycle Modules designed with consideration of various learning styles, adult education theories and uses the ELCWe will have a closer lookDiscussing step by stepWorking through an example
10 ELC NOW WHAT WHAT SO WHAT Experience Application Process GoalsClimate SettingExperienceClosureActivity, DoingGoalsELCApplicationProcessPlanning more effectiveSharing, comparingPost training behaviorprocessing, reflectingNOW WHATWHATThere are four steps inside the cycle and three steps that involve getting into and out of the cycle. This is how we get SEVEN vital and equally important steps to the cycle. To begin every session the trainer must set the climate and focus participant attention. Without this participants may not understand the purpose of the activity. Depending on the design, deductive or inductive, the trainer may introduce the goals at the beginning or end of the session or both. It is however important to tell participants where they are going and what they have accomplished. And finally the trainer must bring closure to the session, summarizing, tying concepts together and telling participants what is next.You may see cycles with a slight variance. For Example, in Jossey/Bass/Pfeiffer’s Reference Guide to Handbooks and Annuals, 1997 edition, the depiction of the Experiential Learning Cycle has five parts inside the cycle. Namely:Experience – the Activity PhasePublishing – Sharing reactions and observationsProcessing – Discussing patterns and DynamicsGeneralizing – Developing Real world principlesApplying – Planning effective use of LearningGeneralizationDrawingconclusions,Identifying general principlesSO WHAT
11 The ELC Every training module is experiential All the steps must be included to be effectiveIt is the trainer’s responsibility to lead the participants through every part of the ELC
12 What is the purpose of each step in the experiential learning cycle? ELCTHE THEORYEach step has a unique and definite purpose and success is increased if all steps are used. The steps overlay with learning styles and hence include more styles when all are used in unison. We need to ‘grab’ participants interest so that they will listen and focus on the learning activities. Some learners must know up front what they will be able to do by the end of the session in order to listen. Some learners need to talk, others write, think, theorize and use new knowledge, skills and attitudes. Using all seven steps of the cycle will allow you as a trainer to reach more participants, within their own styles, to improve chances of the new learning being employed back in the workplace.
13 1. Climate SettingStimulates interest, curiosity and enables participants to begin thinking about the subject.Provides a rationale for why the subject is important to the participants and how it is useful to them.Links the training session to previous ones and places it into the overall framework of the training event.
14 2. Goal ClarificationPresents statements to participants describing the intent, aim or purpose of the training activity.Provides an opportunity for participants to get a clear understanding of the goals of the session.Allows participants to explore additional issues or raise concerns.In some situations goals may be introduced at the end of the session, for example in a deductive training module
15 What are training outcomes ... We train people for three specific purposes:Changing an Attitude or BehaviorLearning a SkillTransferring KnowledgeTHE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METHODS AND OUTCOMESTrainers must choose specific methods based on the desired outcomes for any training session. It is impossible to specify the value of any particular training method without giving reference to the objectives of the training.In formulating a training design, one must consider which type of activity fits the different training objectives. Is the main objective to change the participant's knowledge, attitude, or behavior skills? The methods/techniques which enable a trainer to affect these changes are described below.KnowledgeThe basic requirement for acquiring or altering knowledge (concepts, ideas, facts, etc.) is that information be presented clearly to the learner and he/she receives feedback on attempts to communicate an understanding of the new information. Otherwise, it is unreasonable to expect accurate learning.Appropriate techniques for communicating information include lecture (if accompanied by an activity, question/answer period); open discussion; symposiums where members of the audience are given the opportunity to question the speaker; television; films; tape recordings or readings which are analyzed by the group of participants with the direction of the trainer.BehaviorChange in the actual ability to do something usually requires guided practice with feedback about the success or failure of the practice. Many people believe that group relevant skills, such as keeping a discussion on the topic, can be learned through practice. It is possible to learn all about driving a car by reading a book, but the actual driving can only be learned by doing, by seeing the results, and doing it again.Methods using video or audio tape recording and playback are helpful for improving skills in group behavior. Intermittent process analysis, use of group observers, coaching sessions, critiques and role plays are also useful, as is any method involving immediate analysis of the effectiveness of behavior.AttitudesIf attitude change is desired, it is appropriate to utilize small, informal, open-ended discussion groups where the individual will not feel threatened. To the degree that these discussion groups are important or valuable to the participant, attitude changes are more likely to be lasting.Other training methods that are helpful for bringing about attitude change include interview situations in which one participant listens carefully to another' s descriptions of their attitudes and problems, and role playing. Role playing can be especially helpful in attitude change because the learner actually experiences the new attitudes, feels little threat, and is supported by other members of the training group.The best methods for influencing post-training action are those that involve group discussion and group decision-making to undertake specific actions on the job. Individual planning sessions followed by reporting to the group (for support and reinforcement are also appropriate, as are team planning meetings and many other activities.
16 To achieve those outcomes we need clear Training Objectives Training objectives occur at two different levels:The overall course objective is a broadly stated objective referring to the end result for the entire training program.The session or module objective is specific and more narrowly defined. Each of these is an element in the overall course objective.Goals and ObjectivesOnce you have determined the training needs, the next step is to consider how these will be achieved. To do this you need to decide the goals and objectives for the training program and the individual sessions.Training Sessions GoalGoals are fairly broad, general statements of intent for a session activity derived from the needs you have identified. They frequently begin with ‘to’. For example:To practice adult education techniquesTo improve the level of delinquency in an MFITo develop a management information systemObjectivesObjectives are tactical applications of the strategic goals. They are written in clear, unambiguous, specific and precise terms. They specify what the learners will be able to do at the end of each stage of the learning process. This is essential in evaluating the training by considering whether what has been achieved is what was intended.A training objective has three elements:1. OUTCOMES This is the observable behavior required at the end of the training and is prefaced by the statement, ‘By the end of the session/program, the participants will be able to…’2. CONDITIONS These are the circumstances in which the outcomes should take place and must be clearly defined. Such conditions might include ‘in a cohesive team situation’, ‘without the use of instructional materials’, ‘under realistic working conditions’, and so on.3. STANDARDS The expected level of attainment in terms of quality, accuracy, quantity or whatever is relevant to the job. These can include ‘to 100% accuracy (or some other level)’, ‘at the rate of 50 per hour’, etc.Objectives should be written so that mental manipulation can be avoided. Wherever possible, the learners should be made aware of the program or session objectives prior to or at the start of the event, either verbally or in written form.
17 How do you choose the right training methods? Once you have determined the training outcomes and specific training objectivesdetermine the methods you will use to convey the information you wish to present.
18 What other training activities have you experienced? GAMESBRAINSTORMINGICEBREAKERS??????
19 3. The ExperienceAn activity that provides an opportunity to a group to participate in a situation relevant to the goals of the training.This is the data producing event from which participants can extract and analyze as they complete the learning cycle.Common “experiences” are role plays, case studies, self-diagnostic instruments, games, discussions, readings, exercises, calculations, etc.
20 To reach the most people and achieve the best retention… Use a variety of training activities to accommodate various learning styles:Charts and visualsHands-on practiceInteraction that includes the participantsLive presentations
21 4. ProcessingParticipants explain or ‘publish’ what happened during the previous step and share their reactions to the experience.The group analyzes and reflects thoughtfully on the experience.The trainer guides and manages the processing of information.
22 4. Processing ask what happened? Trainer facilitates a discussion by asking questionsWhat did you do? What happened in the activity?What feelings did you have during the experience?What did you observe? Think about?
23 5. GeneralizingParticipants seek to identify key generalizations and draw conclusions that could be derived from discussion of the experience.Theories are drawn based on these discussions and conclusions.Participants determine how the patterns that evolved during the experience phase of the learning cycle relate to the experience of everyday life.
24 5. Generalizing ask so what? What did you learn? Relearn? Trainer leads discussion through questioning to move participant to the conclusions.What did you learn? Relearn?What benefits did you get from the experience?What are the implications of the activity?What generalizations can you make based on the experience?What conclusions can you draw?SO WHAT?Participants think critically about the experience to draw conclusions and generalizations that might apply to real life
25 6. ApplyingUsing the insights and conclusions gained from the previous steps, the participants identify and share how they plan to use these new insights in their everyday life.Trainer leads discussion on the application of the theories derived or gives a written assignment to facilitate the planning process.Instrumental in getting the new knowledge, skills and attitudes back to the workplace!
26 6. Applyingask now what?How does the experience relate to the real world?How do you want to do things differently in the future?How can you extend the learning you had?What steps can you take to apply what you have learned?NOW WHAT?Drawing upon the insights and conclusions reached, participants begin to plan for more effective behavior in future based on what they have learned.
27 7. ClosureThe events of the training are summarized. Main messages are emphasized.Remaining questions are answered and points clarified.Links to the original goals of the session and determines if goals have been met.Provides a sense of completion.Links the session to the entire program and the next training activity.
28 The ELC Let us work through an example A session outline follows using the steps of the Experiential Learning Cycle
29 Set the ClimateIntroduce the session, grab attentionAsk participants if they have ever been members of a group? What kind were they? How did the groups work?State that everyone has experience with groups some more successful than others.Today we are going to talk more about groups.
30 Goals Tell where we are going Today we are going to look at how groups work.You will be able to list roles that are beneficial to groups working bestWe will use a ‘fishbowl’ exercise demonstrate.
31 Experience Now, try it out for yourself Find a few other colleagues and form a small team.Place several sheets of blank paper and a pair of scissors in the center of the team. Do not give the objects to any one team member.Tell the team they have a problem to solve.They have to cut the paper to end up with the shape shown in the next slide.There is only one rule: they are only allowed to make ONE cut with scissors and it must be a straight cut.Give them seven minutes to complete the task and observe what happens.
33 Process the experience by asking: What happened?Was the task accomplished?What helped them to accomplish the task?What hindered them?How did members work as a team?See final slide for cutting solution
34 Generalize draw conclusions What did you learn about teamwork in dealing with this problem?What conclusions can you draw about how teams work?
35 Apply what you have learned from the experience by asking: What would you do differently when next working with a team?How does what you learned about teams affect how you would facilitate a training session?What kind of action planning might be undertaken?
36 Closure summarize and link Ask: What were the main messages of the session?Summarize main points – for example - We have worked with groups and now understand task and maintenance functions. We understand the importance of all the functions being present in order to make the groups work effectively to accomplish the task and ensure everyone feels that they are a part of the group.Ask for any remaining questionsState: We will now see in the next session how this fits into our work as trainers.
37 Given what you have learned about… ExperientialLearningCycleAdultEducationLearningStylesAnd worked through a sample training session
38 So what do you thinkWhy do you think the experiential learning cycle is important?What do you see the strengths and weaknesses of the using the ELC?How will you use this information in your daily work?How will you plan to ensure that you use this new knowledge, skills and attitudes in the future?
39 In summaryThe Experiential Learning Cycle is a training design tool that employs the best of adult education theoryAll steps of the ELC are equally important to the process of learning and retentionUse of the ELC helps the facilitator ensure various learning styles are addressed
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