Presentation on theme: "COMMUNICATION Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individual and / or organization so that an understanding response."— Presentation transcript:
COMMUNICATION Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individual and / or organization so that an understanding response results.
PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNICATION CLARITY COMPLETENESS CONCISENESS CONSIDERATION COURTSEY CORRECTNESS
NEED OF COMMUNICATION To establish and disseminate goals of an enterprise. To develop plans for the achievement. To organize human and other resources in an effective and efficient way. To select, develop and appraise members of the organization. To lead, direct, motivate and create a climate in which people want to contribute. To control performance.
COMMUNICATION PROCESS A SENDER :Who sends out the message.
A RECEIVER : Who receives the message.
A MEDIUM : Through which the message is communicated. This medium could be written, oral or nonverbal. In addition to the sender and receiver, message and the medium there are two other features in the communication process.
NOISE : This refers to the factors that hinder effective communication.
FEEDBACK : This is the process that ensures that the two way communication occurs so that the sender and receiver of the message can make sure that the intended message and the received message are the same. Thus, feedback facilitates effective communication.
INFORMATION SOURCE TRANSMITTER NOISE SOURCE RECEIVERDESTINATION MESSAGE SIGNALRECEIVED SIGNAL
EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT COMMUNICATION When the intended (sent) message is the same as the interpreted or (recovered) message. Communication is effective when message is transmitted at least in terms of time, money, effort and other resources.
COMMUNICATION MODES AND MEDIA ORAL- Could be face to face or over a telephone. WRITTEN- Letters, notice boards, magazines, news papers, etc. NON VERBAL- Transmitted through gestures, facial expressions and body language. GRAPEVINE- A powerful medium through which message get transmitted by word of mouth.
GIVING FEEDBACK Give specific and not general or vague feedback. Give feedback immediately or soon after the event. Give on aspects that the receiver can rectify. Be descriptive and not evaluative. Give feedback on a few critical issues- a long list of defects will discourage and demotivate. Examine his own motivation in giving feedback- is he giving it in helping mode or a power mode. Be sure that the receiver is ready to receive feedback. If he is too defensive or too rigid giving feedback is difficult. Be non- threatening, disregard the status effect.
RECEIVING FEEDBACK Have the motivation (desire) to receive. Be non- defensive. Be an active listener. Seek clarification from time to time. After the feedback, think through the issues and work -out a plan of action in order to benefit from any valid feedback.
COMMUNICATION BARRIERS SEMANTIC PROBLEMS STATUS EFFETCS PHYSICAL DISTRACTIONS INFORMATION OVERLOAD TIME PRESSURE CULTURAL DIFFERENCES TRUST LEVEL PERCEPTUAL DIFFERENCE ABSENCE OF TWO WAY COMMUNICATION GRAPEVINE
COMMUNICATION PATTERNS DOWNWARD, when it flows from the superior tot he subordinate. UPWARD, when the flow if from the subordinate to the superior. LATERAL, when it takes place at peer level. DIAGONAL, when communication takes place between a manager and members of other work groups.
COMMUNICATION NTWORK CHAIN: Where one person transmits information to another as per the chain of the organizational hierarchy. WHEEL: Where one person can communicate with number of other persons who do not communicate with each other. CIRCLE : Where each of the individual can communicate with all others. INVERTED: Where two people report to a boss who has two level above.
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS TA is a technique for examining the nature of the interpersonal communication between two individuals and to analyze whether or not effective communication is taking place. Parent Ego State Adult Ego State Child Ego State
PURPOSE OF SUPERIOR- SUBORDINATES COMMUNCIATION To give specific task directives about job instruction. To give information about organizations procedures and practices. To provide information and rationale of jobs. To tell about subordinates performance. To provide ecological type information to facilitate the indoctrination of goals. To provide any other useful information / instructions to clarify message or for any other useful purpose like building trust, raise morale, etc.
DECISION MAKING Decision making involves making a choice from available or generated alternatives. When decision is made by face - to- face group (a task group or a committee or a departmental team) every member is potential contributor to the process of decision making which involves understanding the problem or the issue, breaking down the problem or the issue into its meaningful comments which indicate the real problems on which decisions are required, formulating a general strategy in terms of sequence of action steps, generating alternatives, providing and pooling required information, generating favorable and unfavorable points for each alternative, coming to a shared understanding, making a final choice and getting commitment of all members to the choice made. The main advantage of a group is that it has more resources than a single individual has, and as the saying goes no one of us is a bright as all of us.
FACTORS HINDERING CONSENSUS DOMINATION BY A FEW WITHDRAWAL TENDENCY TO MAKE QUICK DECISION TESTING STRENGTH AVOIDING CONFRONTATION TRADING OR COMPROMISING
THE SKILLS IN DECISION MAKING BY CONSENSUS Three categories of skills may help members to move towards consensus. These skills relate to Problem Solving Skills Task Facilitating Skills Group Building Skills
PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS Decision priorities Analysing the problem at several levels Generating alternatives Discussing consequences of each alternative Developing criteria for decision making Reviewing
TASK FACILITATING SKILLS Initiative Asking for information Giving information Summarizing Expressing opinion Synthesizing Focusing on strategies Time keeping
GROUP BUILDING SKILLS Listening Expressing and responding to feelings Gate keeping Supporting Building on others ideas Encouraging silent members Process reviewing
Evaluate Results Analyze Problem Establish Criteria of Solution Propose alternative solution Pick Up The Best Solution Apply This Solution Define Problem Successful Unsuccessful Stop Go Back PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESS