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What is the nature of communication in organizations? What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? What are the barriers to effective communication? What are current issues in organizational communication? Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-2
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-3
Communication The process of sending and receiving messages with attached meanings. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-4
Source encodes an intended meaning into a message Receiver decodes the message into a perceived meaning Noise any disturbance that disrupts and interferes with the transference of messages Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-5
Communication channels Face-to-face meetings Email Online discussions Written letters Telephone Voice mail Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-6
Feedback the process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message 360-degree feedback Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-7
Guidelines for effective constructive feedback Give it directly and in a spirit of mutual trust Be specific, not general; use clear examples Give it when the receiver is most ready to accept Be accurate; check its validity with others Focus on things the receiver can control Limit how much receiver gets at one time Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-8
Formal channels Follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority Informal channels Diverge from formal channels by skipping levels in the hierarchy or cutting across vertical chains of command Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-9
Grapevine A network of friendships and acquaintances through which rumors and other unofficial information get passed from person to person. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-10
Channel richness The capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-11
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-12
Organizational communication The specific process through which information moves and is exchanged throughout an organization. Information flows: Through formal and informal structures Downward, upward, and laterally Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-13
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-14
Effective communication Occurs when the intended meaning of the source and the perceived meaning of the receiver are virtually the same. Efficient communication Occurs at minimum cost in terms of resources expended. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-15
Nonverbal communication Takes place through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures. The act of speaking without using words. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-16
Kinesics study of gestures and body postures Proxemics study of the way space is utilized Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-17
Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-18
Active listening The ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means. Ability to listen well is a distinct asset. Everyone needs to develop good skills in active listening. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-19
Guidelines for active listening Listen for content Listen for feelings Respond to feelings Note all cues Reflect back Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-20
Ethnocentrism The tendency to believe that one’s culture and its values are superior to those of others Cross-cultural communication challenges Language differences Use of gestures Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-21
Low-context cultures very explicit in using the spoken and written word High-context cultures use words to convey only a limited part of the message the rest must be inferred or interpreted from the context Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-22
Physical distractions Any aspect of the physical setting in which communication takes place Can interfere with communication effectiveness Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-23
Semantic problems Involves a poor choice or use of words and mixed messages. Use the KISS principle of communication. “Keep it short and simple” Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-24
Mixed messages Occur when a person’s words communicate one thing while actions or body language communicates another Nonverbals add important insights in face-to- face meetings Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-25
Absence of feedback One-way communication flows from sender to receiver only, with no direct and immediate feedback. Two-way communication goes from sender to receiver and back again. Two-way communication is more effective than one-way communication. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-26
Status effects Status differences create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks Mum effect tendency to keep “mum” from a desire to be polite and a reluctance to transmit bad news Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-27
Advances in information technologies enable organizations to: Distribute information much faster Make more information available Allow broader and more immediate access to information Encourage participation in the sharing and use of information Integrate systems and functions, and use information to link with the environment Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-28
Potential disadvantages of electronic communications Technologies are impersonal Nonverbal communication is removed from situation Can unduly influence the emotional aspects of communication Information overload Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-29
Workplace privacy Eavesdropping by employers on employee use of electronic messaging in corporate facilities Most organizations develop internal policies regarding employee privacy Likely to remain controversial Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-30
Communication and social context Men and women are socialized into different communication styles. Women are socialized to be more sensitive to interpersonal relationships in communication. Men are socialized to be competitive, aggressive, and individualistic, which may cause communication problems. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-31
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