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What is the nature of communication in organizations? What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? What are the barriers to effective communication?

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Presentation on theme: "What is the nature of communication in organizations? What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? What are the barriers to effective communication?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 What is the nature of communication in organizations? What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? What are the barriers to effective communication? What are current issues in organizational communication? Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-2

3 Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-3

4 Communication  The process of sending and receiving messages with attached meanings. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-4

5 Source  encodes an intended meaning into a message Receiver  decodes the message into a perceived meaning Noise  any disturbance that disrupts and interferes with the transference of messages Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-5

6 Communication channels Face-to-face meetings Online discussions Written letters Telephone Voice mail Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-6

7 Feedback  the process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message 360-degree feedback Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-7

8 Guidelines for effective constructive feedback Give it directly and in a spirit of mutual trust Be specific, not general; use clear examples Give it when the receiver is most ready to accept Be accurate; check its validity with others Focus on things the receiver can control Limit how much receiver gets at one time Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-8

9 Formal channels  Follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority Informal channels  Diverge from formal channels by skipping levels in the hierarchy or cutting across vertical chains of command Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 11-9

10 Grapevine  A network of friendships and acquaintances through which rumors and other unofficial information get passed from person to person. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

11 Channel richness  The capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

12 Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

13 Organizational communication  The specific process through which information moves and is exchanged throughout an organization. Information flows:  Through formal and informal structures  Downward, upward, and laterally Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

14 Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

15 Effective communication  Occurs when the intended meaning of the source and the perceived meaning of the receiver are virtually the same. Efficient communication  Occurs at minimum cost in terms of resources expended. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

16 Nonverbal communication  Takes place through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures.  The act of speaking without using words. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

17 Kinesics  study of gestures and body postures Proxemics  study of the way space is utilized Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

18 Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

19 Active listening  The ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means.  Ability to listen well is a distinct asset.  Everyone needs to develop good skills in active listening. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

20 Guidelines for active listening Listen for content Listen for feelings Respond to feelings Note all cues Reflect back Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

21 Ethnocentrism  The tendency to believe that one’s culture and its values are superior to those of others  Cross-cultural communication challenges  Language differences  Use of gestures Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

22 Low-context cultures  very explicit in using the spoken and written word High-context cultures  use words to convey only a limited part of the message  the rest must be inferred or interpreted from the context Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

23 Physical distractions  Any aspect of the physical setting in which communication takes place  Can interfere with communication effectiveness Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

24 Semantic problems  Involves a poor choice or use of words and mixed messages.  Use the KISS principle of communication.  “Keep it short and simple” Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

25 Mixed messages  Occur when a person’s words communicate one thing while actions or body language communicates another  Nonverbals add important insights in face-to- face meetings Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

26 Absence of feedback  One-way communication flows from sender to receiver only, with no direct and immediate feedback.  Two-way communication goes from sender to receiver and back again.  Two-way communication is more effective than one-way communication. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

27 Status effects  Status differences create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks  Mum effect  tendency to keep “mum” from a desire to be polite and a reluctance to transmit bad news Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

28 Advances in information technologies enable organizations to:  Distribute information much faster  Make more information available  Allow broader and more immediate access to information  Encourage participation in the sharing and use of information  Integrate systems and functions, and use information to link with the environment Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

29 Potential disadvantages of electronic communications  Technologies are impersonal  Nonverbal communication is removed from situation  Can unduly influence the emotional aspects of communication  Information overload Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

30 Workplace privacy  Eavesdropping by employers on employee use of electronic messaging in corporate facilities  Most organizations develop internal policies regarding employee privacy  Likely to remain controversial Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc

31 Communication and social context  Men and women are socialized into different communication styles.  Women are socialized to be more sensitive to interpersonal relationships in communication.  Men are socialized to be competitive, aggressive, and individualistic, which may cause communication problems. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc


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