2 Chapter 15 What is communication and when is it effective? What are the major barriers to effective communication?How can we improve communication with people at work?Communication is more important and complex and than most of us realize.
3 15.1 Effective Communication Communication is a process of sending and receiving messages with meanings attachedCommunication is effective when the receiver understands the sender’s messagesCommunication is efficient when it is delivered at a low cost to the senderCommunication is persuasive when the receiver acts as the sender intends.There are a lot of ways to communicate. Whatever method is used, if the communicating parties truly understand each other, the method used is a good one.
4 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Communication Process Process of sending and receiving messages with meanings attachedCheck Your Communication SkillsUse , voic , text messagingWrite memos, letters, reportsNetwork with peers and mentorsConduct job interviewsRun meetings, contribute to meetingsGive persuasive presentationsWork well in teamsGive and receive feedbackManagers communicate many different ways
5 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Communication Process Students are probably familiar with the two-way communication process. Managers have the added challenge of communicating and soliciting feedback from a diverse group, and accuracy of communication is essential.
9 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Communication Process Receiver must understand the sender’s messageEfficient CommunicationCommunication occurs at minimum costEffective communication is very important for managers. Choosing the right medium for training employees or giving directives can make a big difference in how well the receiver understands the message. Cost includes time and effort in addition to expense.
10 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION Communication Process Persuasive communicationConvincing others to accept, support and act on the messageCredible communicationEarns trust, respect and integrityMany persuasive communicators are not very credible. Students can probably contribute many examples, including Bernard Madoff, hoaxes and scams, supermarket tabloids, infomercials, recruiters etc…
11 15.2 Communication Barriers Poor use of communication channels makes it hard to communicate effectivelyPoor written or oral expression makes it hard to communicate effectivelyFailure to spot nonverbal signals makes it hard to communicate effectivelyStatus differences make it hard to communicate effectively.Physical distractions make it hard to communicate effectivelyThe choice of a communication channel or medium is part of the message. “The medium is the message”.
12 COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Communication Channels Poor use makes effective communication difficultNoise interferes with the communication processMost of us do not multi-task as well when we are trying to communicate as we think we do. It’s no wonder we are so often misunderstood when we attempt to talk while using the computer or carry on two conversations at once. Does using a laptop or texting during a meeting or college lecture class qualify as noise?
13 COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Communication Channels Medium used to carry messageChannel richnessAbility of the channel to convey meaningVideo conferencing is becoming popular for being effective and efficient. It is effective in providing high channel richness, yet is much less expensive than face to face meetings when travel is involved.
14 COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Communication Channels Poor written or oral expression makes it hard to communicate effectivelyManagers need to use effective communication. Others may make wrong assumptions about a manager’s expertise, qualifications or experience if written communication contains errors or poor presentation skills make a bad impression. If you spend hours preparing a perfect report or presentation slides, put equal effort into effectively presenting it in person.
15 COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Communication Channels Nonverbal communicationGestures, expressions, posture and interpersonal spaceMixed messagesWords and nonverbal signals don’t matchMixed messages are situations when your non-verbal communication doesn’t match what you say. Sarcasm is a good example. Not everyone interprets mixed messages the same way. They can be very confusing.When communicating in another country or with someone of another culture one may run into confusing non-verbal communication. The non-verbals in this picture may be worth exploring.
16 COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Communication Channels Status differencesFiltering distorts information to make it more favorable to recipientPlan the time and place to communicate important information. Discipline interviews, training and performance appraisals are examples of communication that needs an appropriate setting, free of distractions.
17 COMMUNICATION BARRIERS Communication Channels Physical distractionsPlan message to minimize distractions and interruptionsManagers that do not seem approachable may not receive all of the information they need.
18 15.3 Improving Communication Active listening helps people say what they really meanConstructive feedback is specific, timely and relevantOffice spaces can be designed to encourage interaction and communicationTransparency and openness ensure that accurate and timely information is sharedIn today’s global communication, technology has certainly provided more communication. Whether it has provided better communication depends on the complexity and sensitivity of the message being communicated.
19 15.3 Continued Improving Communication Appropriate use of technology can facilitate more and better communicationSensitivity and etiquette can improve cross-cultural communication
20 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION Listening Active listeningHelps the source of a message say what he or she really meansListening is power. Those that are good listeners have much more access to people and information than those that are poor listeners or would rather talk. Active listening requires that you clear your mind of other things and focus completely on the person who is talking. Too often, we only partially listen.
21 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION Listening Rules for better listeningListen for message contentListen for feelingsRespond to feelingsNote all cuesParaphrase and restateCommunication is more effective if the listener follows this advice.
22 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION Feedback Process of telling someone else how you feel about something that person did or saidShould beAt the right timeGenuineSpecificStick to the essentialsGiven in small dosesIt is important to give feedback even if you understand the message. A short confirmation can avoid many errors and it will be appreciated by the sender. It’s also important to seek feedback if you’re the sender.
23 Proxemics Proxemics The study of the way we use space Physical distance between people conveys varying intentions in terms of intimacy, openness, and status.
24 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION Openness Communication transparencyHonest, open, accurate and complete informationOpen-book managementEmployees are given essential financial information about their employersEmployees want accurate information regarding the employer’s strategy, plans and financial information. It may not be possible to be completely open, but every attempt should be made to provide employees with the information they need.
25 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION Physical Setting Work spaces designed to encourage interaction and communicationProxemicsSitting opposite the receiver can be confrontational. Sitting beside the receiver is more cooperative.
26 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION Technology Appropriate use of technology can facilitate more and better communicationTextSocial networkingTechnology has revolutionized personal and business communication. Every medium is not appropriate for every message, however. Ask students which of these is most appropriate for:A directiveRecruitingConfirming appointmentsPositive reinforcementCommunity building
27 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION Technology Electronic grapevineTransmit information around informal networks inside and outside the organizationTrue and false information can circle the globe in a very short timeframe. Many organizations filter and monitor Internet use. It is difficult to avoid personal communications while at work but, as a rule of thumb, you should not communicate any personal message that you would not want your employer to hear or see.
28 IMPROVING COMMUNICATION Cross-Cultural Communication EthnocentrismConsider one’s own culture to be superiorCultural etiquetteAppropriate manners and behavior when communicating with people from other culturesYou can communicate better with people of another culture if you take some time to understand some of the basics of their culture.