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Learning Objectives for Interpersonal Communication

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Objectives for Interpersonal Communication"— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Objectives for Interpersonal Communication
State the essentials of interpersonal communication. Discuss how interpersonal communication networks affect power and control relationships among employees. Describe how information technologies affect communication. Explain the skills and abilities that foster dialogue. Describe how nonverbal communication supports dialogue. Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication

2 Communication The transfer of information from one person or group to another person or group through the use of a medium. 3 Part Process Encoding Transmission Decoding

3 Sender Encoder of the information that starts the communication process Encoding - translation of thoughts, ideas, or feelings into a medium for transfer Must choose an appropriate medium for the message and for the receiver

4 Message Verbal (words that are written or spoken) symbols and nonverbal cues that represent the information Often the intended message does not match with what is received based on: encoding and decoding of message non-verbal cues

5 Receiver Decodes the message from medium into thoughts, ideas, and feelings Decoding is more important than encoding because it is the recipient’s decoding of the information that gives it meaning to them, and influences their actions Ability to listen is vital, most people are poor listeners, between50% & 25% retention

6 Perception Giving meaning to messages Effected by:
Personal frame of reference How one’s mind works Mood Effected by: Jargon Information Overload Medium

7 Perception (cont) Frame of reference - filter through which perceptions screened and limited Projection - attributing to others one’s own thoughts, ideas, feelings, traits Figure ground- Figure - positive features in environment Ground - background & competing stimuli

8 Perception Problems Selective Perception - screening out of information that you want or need to avoid Stereo-typing - assumptions about individuals based on their membership in a generalized group Halo-effect - tendency to overate an individual based upon a single trait

9 Elements of Interpersonal Communication
Sender Receiver Transmitters Channels Receptors Decoding Encoding Noise Situational Interpersonal Cultural Start MEANING MEANING Encoding Decoding Receptors Channels Transmitters Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication

10 Cultural Hurdles in Interpersonal Communication
Body Language Personal Space Ethnocentrism Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication

11 Guidelines for Effective Active Listening
Have a purpose for listening. Suspend judgment, at least initially. Resist distractions and focus on the sender. Pause before responding to the sender. Rephrase the sender’s message. Seek out important themes. Use the differential between rates of speech and thought to reflect and search for meaning. Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication

12 Types of Nonverbal Cues
TYPE OF CUE EXPLANATION AND EXAMPLES Body motion Gestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, etc. Personal physical characteristics Body shape, posture, body or breath odors, hair color, skin color, etc. Paralanguage Voice qualities, speech habits, laughing, etc. Use of space Ways people use and perceive space. Physical environment Building and room design, furnishings, etc. Time Use of time, cultural differences in time perceptions. Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication

13 Channels The path that a message travels from sender to receiver
Different channels have different levels of media richness the information carrying capacity of the channel words, expressions, inflection, feelings

14 Examples of Media Richness
Rapid High Face-to-face dialogue * Videoconference * Telephone conversation * * Voice mail * Feedback Personalization * Informal letters/memos * Organization’s own videos * Formal written documents * Formal numerical documents Slow Low Single Cues Multiple Language Standard Varied Source: Adapted from Daft, R.L., and Lengel, R.H. Organizational information requirements, media richness, and structural design. Management Science, 1986, 32, Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication

15 Spoken Vs Written Spoken provides: Written provides:
immediate feedback great richness from nonverbal cues fast Written provides: ability to say everything intended w/o interruption how they intend to say them is slower and not as rich

16 Communication Media Face-to-Face: highest information richness.
Can take advantage of body language and non-verbal cues. Provides for instant feedback. Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talks to workers. Video Conferences: provide much of this richness. Reduces travel costs and feedback times. Verbal Communication electronically transmitted: has next highest richness. No nonverbal cues. Phone conversations Do have tone of voice, and quick feedback.

17 Communication Media Personally Addressed Written Communication: lower richness than the verbal forms, but still is directed at a given person. Personal addressing helps ensure receiver reads it. Letters and are common forms. Does not provide immediate feedback to sender but can get feedback later. Excellent for complex messages needing follow-up. Written Communication: lowest richness. Good for messages to multiple receivers. Little feedback is expected. Newsletters, reports are examples.

18 Social Networks Networks show information flows in an organization.
Star Network: information flow to and from one central member. Circle Network: members communicate with people next to them in sequence. Wheel and Chain networks provide for little interaction. Chain Network: members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, office layout, etc. Clique Network: found in teams, with maximal levels of communications between each member and all others.

19 Importance of Social Networks
Powerful individuals may limit access to information. Simple networks are needed for simple problems or independent tasks. Complex networks are needed for complex problems or interdependent tasks. No single network is universally effective. Adequate sharing of information is crucial. Trade-offs or opportunity costs must be considered. Informal networks often create barriers. Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication

20 Communication Networks in Groups & Teams
Wheel Network Circle Network Chain Network All Channel Network Figure 15.3

21 Social Network Terms Relational Strength Asymmetrical Relationships
Central versus Peripheral Structural Holes Density Groups


23 Advantages and Limitations of Information Technologies
People can communicate with each other: More easily. More quickly. Less expensively. Interferes with relationship building or complex group problem solving. Breaks down work and non-work boundaries. Erodes delegation of authority. Possibility of wasted time and effort. Lacks confidentiality. Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication

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