Presentation on theme: "Learning Objectives for Interpersonal Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1 Learning Objectives for Interpersonal Communication State the essentials of interpersonal communication.Discuss how interpersonal communication networks affect power and control relationships among employees.Describe how information technologies affect communication.Explain the skills and abilities that foster dialogue.Describe how nonverbal communication supports dialogue.Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication
2 CommunicationThe transfer of information from one person or group to another person or group through the use of a medium.3 Part ProcessEncodingTransmissionDecoding
3 SenderEncoder of the information that starts the communication processEncoding - translation of thoughts, ideas, or feelings into a medium for transferMust choose an appropriate medium for the message and for the receiver
4 MessageVerbal (words that are written or spoken) symbols and nonverbal cues that represent the informationOften the intended message does not match with what is received based on:encoding and decoding of messagenon-verbal cues
5 ReceiverDecodes the message from medium into thoughts, ideas, and feelingsDecoding is more important than encoding because it is the recipient’s decoding of the information that gives it meaning to them, and influences their actionsAbility to listen is vital, most people are poor listeners, between50% & 25% retention
6 Perception Giving meaning to messages Effected by: Personal frame of referenceHow one’s mind worksMoodEffected by:JargonInformation OverloadMedium
7 Perception (cont)Frame of reference - filter through which perceptions screened and limitedProjection - attributing to others one’s own thoughts, ideas, feelings, traitsFigure ground-Figure - positive features in environmentGround - background & competing stimuli
8 Perception ProblemsSelective Perception - screening out of information that you want or need to avoidStereo-typing - assumptions about individuals based on their membership in a generalized groupHalo-effect - tendency to overate an individual based upon a single trait
9 Elements of Interpersonal Communication SenderReceiverTransmittersChannelsReceptorsDecodingEncodingNoiseSituationalInterpersonalCulturalStartMEANINGMEANINGEncodingDecodingReceptorsChannelsTransmittersChapter 13: Interpersonal Communication
10 Cultural Hurdles in Interpersonal Communication Body LanguagePersonal SpaceEthnocentrismChapter 13: Interpersonal Communication
11 Guidelines for Effective Active Listening Have a purpose for listening.Suspend judgment, at least initially.Resist distractions and focus on the sender.Pause before responding to the sender.Rephrase the sender’s message.Seek out important themes.Use the differential between rates of speech and thought to reflect and search for meaning.Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication
12 Types of Nonverbal Cues TYPE OF CUEEXPLANATION AND EXAMPLESBody motionGestures, facial expressions, eye behavior, etc.Personal physicalcharacteristicsBody shape, posture, body or breath odors,hair color, skin color, etc.ParalanguageVoice qualities, speech habits, laughing, etc.Use of spaceWays people use and perceive space.PhysicalenvironmentBuilding and room design, furnishings, etc.TimeUse of time, cultural differences in time perceptions.Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication
13 Channels The path that a message travels from sender to receiver Different channels have different levels of media richnessthe information carrying capacity of the channelwords, expressions, inflection, feelings
14 Examples of Media Richness RapidHighFace-to-face dialogue *Videoconference *Telephone conversation ** Voice mail*FeedbackPersonalization* Informal letters/memos* Organization’s own videos* Formal written documents* Formal numerical documentsSlowLowSingleCuesMultipleLanguageStandardVariedSource: Adapted from Daft, R.L., and Lengel, R.H. Organizational information requirements, media richness,and structural design. Management Science, 1986, 32,Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication
15 Spoken Vs Written Spoken provides: Written provides: immediate feedbackgreat richness from nonverbal cuesfastWritten provides:ability to say everything intended w/o interruption how they intend to say thembut...feedback is slower and not as rich
16 Communication Media Face-to-Face: highest information richness. Can take advantage of body language and non-verbal cues.Provides for instant feedback.Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talks to workers.Video Conferences: provide much of this richness.Reduces travel costs and feedback times.Verbal Communication electronically transmitted: has next highest richness.No nonverbal cues.Phone conversationsDo have tone of voice, and quick feedback.
17 Communication MediaPersonally Addressed Written Communication: lower richness than the verbal forms, but still is directed at a given person.Personal addressing helps ensure receiver reads it.Letters and are common forms.Does not provide immediate feedback to sender but can get feedback later.Excellent for complex messages needing follow-up.Written Communication: lowest richness.Good for messages to multiple receivers. Little feedback is expected.Newsletters, reports are examples.
18 Social Networks Networks show information flows in an organization. Star Network: information flow to and from one central member.Circle Network: members communicate with people next to them in sequence.Wheel and Chain networks provide for little interaction.Chain Network: members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise, office layout, etc.Clique Network: found in teams, with maximal levels of communications between each member and all others.
19 Importance of Social Networks Powerful individuals may limit access to information.Simple networks are needed for simple problems or independent tasks.Complex networks are needed for complex problems or interdependent tasks.No single network is universally effective.Adequate sharing of information is crucial.Trade-offs or opportunity costs must be considered.Informal networks often create barriers.Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication
20 Communication Networks in Groups & Teams Wheel NetworkCircle NetworkChain NetworkAll Channel NetworkFigure 15.3
21 Social Network Terms Relational Strength Asymmetrical Relationships Central versus PeripheralStructural HolesDensityGroups
23 Advantages and Limitations of Information Technologies People can communicate with each other:More easily.More quickly.Less expensively.Interferes with relationship building or complex group problem solving.Breaks down work and non-work boundaries.Erodes delegation of authority.Possibility of wasted time and effort.Lacks confidentiality.Chapter 13: Interpersonal Communication