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~Fertility and Technology~ Team Entourage Stephanie Weldon Kimberly Juarez Briana Garcia Jose Cuchilla.

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Presentation on theme: "~Fertility and Technology~ Team Entourage Stephanie Weldon Kimberly Juarez Briana Garcia Jose Cuchilla."— Presentation transcript:

1 ~Fertility and Technology~ Team Entourage Stephanie Weldon Kimberly Juarez Briana Garcia Jose Cuchilla

2 Fertility and Infertility Fertility: The ability to conceive and have children through normal sexual intercourse Infertility: The failure to conceive after a year of regular intercourse without contraception Kimberly Juarez

3 Fertility Control The temporary or permanent prevention of conception Women controlled fertility – Hunter-gatherers all over the world – Iroquois, Australians, Brazilians, Fijian Kimberly

4 Methods of Fertility Control ~Before 19th Century ~ *Cultural *Mental/Psychological *Physical *Herbal or Chemical *Surgical Kimberly

5 Early Fertility Technology Dr Marie Stopes- Olive Oil Mary Ann Leeper- Female condom Queen Semiramis- Chastity belt Dr. Evelyn Billings- Billings Method Kimberly

6 19 th Century Birth Control US patent office refused to patent anything overtly described as a contraceptive Patents began as early as 1867 Stephanie

7 InventionInventor (s)Date Pessaries-Abdominal Supporters (Intrauterine device) Emeline T. Bringham Alice O. McCord Eliza Kirewin 1867 1887 1892 Vaginal Syringes-abortions and/or stopping uterine bleeding Anna L. Palmer Laura M Adams Margret Hart Annie H. and M.G. Collins Lucy R. Meyer 1879 1881 1885 1890 1892 Cervical CapUnknown German midwife19 th Century DiaphragmDr. Aletta Jacobs W.P.J Mesinga 1883 Birth Control Clinic-AmsterdamDr. Aletta Jacobs1878 Perennial SpongeAnnie BeantLate 1870s Women inventors of the 19 th century Stephanie

8 Condoms Used in ancient times Became well known during 1800s – Were unreliable Feminist rallied against condoms Banned in many countries The only method to prevent spread of STDs Stephanie

9 20 th Century Birth Control Pioneers in modern birth control Rational Methods Male contraception Natural or cyclical methods Research Stephanie

10 Pioneers in Birth Control Margaret Sanger – Coined the term Birth Control – Founded Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau (NYC) – First doctor staffed birth control clinic in US Pushed Gregory Pincus to create first Birth Control pill Stephanie

11 Katherine Dexter McCormic – Educated biologist from MIT, B.S. in 1904 – Committed to find an effective contraception for women – Smuggled diaphragms into US for Sangers clinical research Bureau – Recognized the contraceptive potential of Pincuss earlier experiments w/ progesterone as an ovulation suppressant Stephanie

12 Blanche Ames Ames – Artist, feminist, inventor – Co-founded Birth Control League of Massachusetts – Affiliate of Sangers national Leauge Marie Carmichael Stopes – Crusaded to educate women – Married Love (1918) – Invented and patented several contraceptive devices – Founded Englands 1 st Birth Control Clinic Stephanie

13 Rational Methods Hannah Stone (1930s) – Diaphragm with spermicidal jellies Dr. Connie Chambers Harris (1985) – Lower amounts of hormone in birth control pill Stephanie

14 Male Contraception 116°F Sterilization Baths – Dr. Martha Voegil Condoms Latex in 1922 Stephanie

15 Natural Methods Most used by women who cannot use chemical/hormonal birth control Fertility Awareness Planning Lunaception- Louise Lacey Stephanie

16 Research THC – Carol Grace Smith – Disrupts menstrual cycle – Maybe toxic to developing egg cells Gossypol – Male contraception – 99% effective in two months – Ann de Peyster Stephanie

17 Fertility Promotion Briana Garcia Three traditional fertility plants… Pomegranate Date palm Moghat

18 The technology of menstruation Inventions and innovations related to womens menstruation affect half the worlds population for roughly half their lives. Womens techniques for dealing with the menstrual flow are vital aids to the comfort and well-being of all women of reproductive age. Ancient womens inventions to catch the menstrual flow are clever, using natural materials. Briana

19 Ancient womenInventions Native AmericanCreated tampons out of soft moss MediterraneanUsed small sponges Alor womenUsed dry porous banana bark as pads JapaneseUsed 8-12 tampons/day, held in place by a bandage called Kama IndonesianMade tampons from vegetable fiber Roman matronsUsed cloth bandages or tampons out of soft wool African and AustralianUsed bandages of grass or vegetable fiber, while other African women used tampons made of rolls of grass and roots EgyptianUsed rolls of soft papyrus Ancient womens inventions to catch menstrual flow

20 In the history of menstruation, a takeover has occurred. The earliest attempt at male misuse of womens power to bleed but not die, the blood that makes babies, was simple imitation. The rites and practices of Australia, New Guinea, the Philippines, and Africa. In this procedure, males slit the underside of the penis from root to tip, so that when the bleeding organ is pulled upward against the lower abdomen, it resembles a menstruating vagina. Briana

21 Myths of menstruation Men took control of menstruation by portraying it as shameful and unclean. Western anthropologists working before 1970 exaggerated and misinterpreted the concept of menstrual fluids and menstruating women as polluting. In western culture men did not take over and professionalize or commercialize menstrual technology until the 20 th century. Men transformed menstruation from a source of womens pride and strength to something shameful and hidden, into one of the many ways women had to feel inferior to men. Briana

22 19 th -20 th Century Womens Contributions Menstruation Technology – Pads and Belts – Tampons and sponges – Menstrual Cups Menstrual Extraction Remedies for menstrual pain and difficulties – Prostaglandins – Diet Plan – Exercise Jose Cuchilla

23 Menstruation Technology As late as the early 20 th century women still created their own pads and tampons from sponges or soft cloths/rags. By 1883, the first patents for menstruation technology began to recorded, although many of these inventions were categorized as medical and surgical devices. Between 1883-1894, 16 women patented catamenial sacks, monthly protectors, and suspensory bandages. Jose

24 19 th -20 th Century WomenInventions/Patents Emma H. Carpenter Patented a catamenial sack or bandage in 1892 Aniela Majewski Patented a Sanitary pad holder; a casing with an opening allowing the pad of ones choice to be inserted and kept from slipping. (1940) Eleanor J. Fendler & Leo J. Bernardin Patented an absorbent pad including a micro fibrous wed. (1983) Billie J. Matthews Received five patents that improved the adhesive placement, increased resilience and shape retention, and used thermoplastic fibers. (1980-1986) Barbara Oakley Co-patented a three-dimensional sanitary napkin having observant material contoured on the baffle of the side. (1987) Judith Esser-MittogDesigned the o.b. tampon for Johnson & Johnson. Patricia J. McKelveyDeveloped the wrapper structure for tampons containing super-absorbent material.

25 Menstruation Technology Pads Belts Tampons Sponges Menstrual Cups

26 Menstrual Extraction The most revolutionary development in the field of menstrual technology is menstrual extraction. Menstrual extraction is a technique used to help women gain and maintain control over their menstrual cycles and reproductive lives. It was developed by two women of the Los Angeles Self-Help Clinic in 1971. Carol Downer: founder of the self- help movement. Lorraine Rothman: invented and patented the safer instrument now used by the clinics, the Del-Em (1974). Jose

27 Remedies for Menstrual Pain and Difficulties Prostaglandins: a potent substance that acts like a hormone and is found in many bodily tissues. Dietary plan Exercise Katharina Dalton: Treated pre- menstrual syndrome (PMS) as early as 1948, with monthly doses of prostaglandins and a dietary plan consisting of starches and avoiding birth control pills. Dr. Marcie Storch & Dr. Shelley Kolton: found that reducing salt intake helps limit water retention and a 300 to 500 mg dosage of Vitamin B-6 prevent the resulting headaches. Dr. Susan Lark: Developed a diet and exercise treatment for PMS symptoms.

28 Feminist Theory & Menstrual Taboos Taboo: strong social prohibition (or ban) relating to any area of human activity or social custom that is sacred and forbidden. Through a Feminist theory perspective, we see that menstrual taboos not only control the behavior of women, but also act as a basis for the existence of the patriarchal system. Stigma surrounding menstruation makes it socially unacceptable to talk about it in public. The topic itself is portrayed as unclean, dirty, embarrassing, and something to be ashamed of. This internalized oppression holds the patriarchal system in place. Examples…


30 1.Name two methods of fertility control before 19th century 2.What was Margaret Sanger most famous for? 3.What are the three traditional fertility plants? 4.How have menstrual taboos affected society? 5.Why havent women received recognition for fertility control? Quiz

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