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Lecture #2 Second Language Theories: Research and Practice © 2014 MARY RIGGS 1
Stephen Krashen: Learning vs. acquisition Natural order Monitor Input (I + 1) Affective filter Second Language Acquisition © 2014 MARY RIGGS 2
Jim Cummins: Linguistic threshold Degree of L1 proficiency Effects of student status Context and cognitive load Dimensions of proficiency: Iceberg Common underlying proficiency Effects of prior literacy Second Language Hypotheses © 2014 MARY RIGGS 3
Other Significant Hypotheses: 2-way interaction: display vs. referential questions (Long) Acculturation (Schumann) Critical vs. sensitive period (Lenneberg and others) Optimal age for 2LA (Collier & Thomas) Older = better Diminishing returns for LOR Second Language Hypotheses © 2014 MARY RIGGS 4
Iceberg Theory: Second Language Hypotheses BICS CALP © 2014 MARY RIGGS 5
Dimensions of Language Proficiency Second Language Hypotheses Cognitively undemanding (easy) Cognitively demanding (difficult) Contextualized (visuals, realia, audio) Decontextualized (little or no context) B AC D © 2014 MARY RIGGS 6
Range of Contextual Support and Degree of Cognitive Involvement in Communicative Activities Cognitively undemanding Cognitively demanding Context embedded Context reduced B AC D ESL/T.P.R. Art, music, P.E. Following directions Face-to-face conversation Demonstrations A-V assisted lesson Math computations Science experiments Social studies projects (map activities, etc.) Telephone conversation Note on refrigerator Written directions (no diagrams or examples) Standardized tests Reading/writing Math concepts & applications Explanations of new abstract concepts Lecture with few illustrations From J. Cummins, The Role of Primary Language Development in Promoting Educational Success for Language Minority Students © 2014 MARY RIGGS 7
Student Status Status characteristics Expectations Previous experiences Attitudes Outcomes Behavior Change or reinforce Status ranking © 2014 MARY RIGGS 8
Krashens Model: Second Language Hypotheses Comprehensible Input The Affective Filter Language Acquisition Device Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills Monitor © 2014 MARY RIGGS 9
Learning vs. Acquisition Learning: Grammar-based syllabus Mastery of linguistic forms Conscious memorization Drills and exercises Teacher-directed Contrastive analysis Error correction Production skills emphasized Acquisition: Syllabus based on students needs, desires, interests Developmental emphasis Communicative goals Subconscious internalization Student-centered Errors not overtly corrected Comprehension skills emphasized © 2014 MARY RIGGS 10
Acquiring a Second Language Ineffective Practices: Sentence patterns out of context Drills, discrete repetitions Watered-down, boring stories Grammatical analysis Frequent correction of all errors Judgmental attitude Assumption that all learners can/will react the same way Effective Practices: Comprehensible input that is relevant and interesting Visuals, gestures, realia Challenging questions/stories Interaction on real-world tasks Response to content of student responses/writing Tolerance and sense of humor Sensitivity to cultural difference © 2014 MARY RIGGS 11
Stages of Acculturation © 2014 MARY RIGGS 12
2.Culture Shock: effects ranging from irritability to physiological and psychological panic and crisis: Anger, annoyance at others inattentiveness, constant complaining, disorientation, dissatisfaction, escapism, estrangement, frustration, homesickness, indecision, insecurity, loneliness, physical illness, resentment, sadness, self-pity, self-questioning of competence, social uncertainty Stages of Acculturation © 2014 MARY RIGGS 13
3.Culture stress: progress is made but individual may feel anomie, the sense that one belongs to neither culture. 4.Acculturation or assimilation: near or full recovery Stages of Acculturation © 2014 MARY RIGGS 14
© 2014 MARY RIGGS 15 Linguistic Threshold Proficiency LevelOutcome Proficient BilingualismPositive cognitive & academic effects Partial Bilingualism (native-like level in one of the languages) Neither positive nor negative effects Limited Bilingualism (low proficiency in both languages) Negative Effects
1.Display Question: In what year did Columbus arrive in the New World? (Everyone knows the teacher knows the answer to this; the student must display his/her knowledge.) 2.Referential Question: If you had sailed with Columbus, what sort of job would you have had on the ship? (No one knows what answer the student might give; the instructional conversation is open-ended.) Two-Way Interactions © 2014 MARY RIGGS 16
Brain Functions Verbal Analytical Rational Logical Linear Left: Time/Sequence Visual Perceptual Holistic Sensory Metaphoric Right: Space/Intuition FRONT BACK LEFTRIGHT © 2014 MARY RIGGS 17
Brain Products/Output Reading Speech Writing Mathematics Reason Analysis Sequence Left: Ordering Feeling Voice Intonation Expression Movement Gestures Arrangement Right: Wholeness FRONT BACK LEFTRIGHT © 2014 MARY RIGGS 18
End of Lecture #2 © 2014 MARY RIGGS 19
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