Presentation on theme: "Instructional Methodology Amy Culey Central Office"— Presentation transcript:
Instructional Methodology Amy Culey Central Office firstname.lastname@example.org
Illustration of Relationships… Program Model (can either be a bilingual model or an immersion model) – Methods and Approaches Strategies and Techniques
ESL Instructional Program Models There are two types of program models: Bilingual Immersion Bilingual Programs Dual Language Model Transitional Bilingual Maintenance Bilingual
The Short Bridge to English: Transitional Bilingual Program Typically begins in elementary school by using students’ L1 as the language of instruction Goals of a transitional bilingual program: – Transition from L1 to L2 as quickly as possible, typically within 1-2 years – Develop L2 academic and linguistic competence The goal of a transitional bilingual program is NOT necessarily to develop true bilingualism or biliteracy as the program moves as quickly as possible toward monolingual teaching and learning.
The Long Bridge to English: Maintenance Bilingual Program Also known as Developmental or Late-Exit Bilingual Program Native language instruction continues after English proficiency is attained. All students in this classroom are ELLs and their L1 is the same. Goals of the Maintenance Bilingual Program: – Maintain and enhance L1 abilities – Develop English language proficiency and literacy – Bilingualism and biliteracy
Dual Language Bilingual Program Also known as Dual Immersion and Two-Way Immersion Programs 2 languages taught throughout school day Each language taught 50% of the day Native speakers of both languages are in the dual language classroom – Ideally about half of the class would be a native speaker of English and the other half of the class would be a native speaker of the 2 nd language taught (the goal is for English and non-English speakers to become biingual and biliterate)
ESL Instructional Program Models Bilingual Transitional Bilingual Program Maintenance / Developmental / Late-Exit Bilingual Program Dual Language / Dual Immersion / Two Way Immersion Bilingual Program Immersion Pull-out Model Structured English Immersion Submersion with L1 support Push-in Model Sheltered Instruction
Pull-Out Model Students integrated into mainstream, English- only classroom in other subjects with no special assistance Students pulled out for ESL instruction aimed at developing English grammar, vocabulary and communication skills, not academic content OR for content ESL, which includes academic content, vocabulary and concepts Goal: fluency in English
Structured English Immersion (SEI) All students in the classroom are ELLs English is the language of instruction It is also the main content - the focus is on the rules and application of the English language. Academic content is secondary The idea is to provide explicit, direct instruction about the English language SEI programs are usually designed to last one academic year Goal: fluency in English
Submersion with L1 Support Students are mainstreamed Uses L1 to support English language content instruction Develops very limited literacy skills in L1 Bilingual teachers / aides tutor small groups of students by reviewing particular lessons covered in mainstream classes, using students’ L1 Goal: fluency in English
Push-In Model The ESL teacher works within the mainstream classroom. There are two push-in options: – Co-teaching (the ESL and mainstream teacher plan and teach together) – Small group instruction (during independent work time, the ESL teacher pulls a small group of learners to a spot within the classroom to work on skills) Goal: fluency in English
Sheltered Language Immersion All students in the classroom are ELLs (L1 may be the same for all students or there may be many different L1s in the class) – students are at around the same language proficiency level Content instruction is in English, but the language used is adjusted to match the proficiency level of students in the classroom Focus is on making content comprehensible and accessible to ELLs No native language support or development Goal: fluency in English
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol - SIOP There are eight components to SIOP 1.Preparation (language and content objectives) 2.Building Background 3.Comprehensible Input (Krashen – i + 1) 4.Strategies 5.Interaction 6.Practice/Application 7.Lesson Delivery 8.Review/Assessment
Krashen’s Input Hypothesis This hypothesis is related to acquisition, not learning. Krashen theorizes that people acquire language best by being exposed to materials that are slightly beyond their current level of competence. He uses the phrase comprehensible input (i +1) to explain this. The i stands for the student’s current level of language input and the +1 for their next stage of language acquisition. As students are not necessarily on the same level at all times, Krashen suggests that natural communicative input is key to ensuring that each learner is exposed to some language input (i +1) that is appropriate for his/her current stage of acquisition.
Methods and Approaches Direct Method Total Physical Response (TPR) Natural Approach Communicative Approach Grammar-based ESL Communication-based ESL Content-based ESL The Silent Way Suggestopedia Whole Language Approach Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA)
Direct Method (Maximilian Berlitz) Total L2 immersion, no use of L1 Students learn grammar intuitively; errors are ignored – self-correction encouraged Oral communication skills are built gradually as students become more adept in the L2 Teachers use mime, sketches or pantomime in order to convey the meaning of vocabulary (no L1 translations) Students participate in open-ended response to materials teacher brings to the classroom
Total Physical Response – TPR (Asher) Allows students to participate without forcing a verbal response Particularly helpful for students in the silent period as they get to communicate through physical movement and motion Teacher issues commands that are carried out by the students Simon Says is another effective way to reinforce vocabulary
Natural Approach (Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell) Introduces vocabulary to students through different experiences (images, games, etc.) Focuses on the study of language through natural means, particularly through casual conversations and communication Places less importance on the study of grammar; grammar not explicitly taught Language output is not forced, but allowed to emerge spontaneously after students have been exposed to comprehensible input.
Communicative Language Theory The communicative language approach is based on the idea that language learners will acquire language faster in real-life scenarios. This teaching methodology involves providing students with real-life situations that require communication by the participants.. Classroom activities are student-focused, with student performance as the goal. Teachers will act more as facilitators and will talk less, allowing students more opportunities for participation.
Additional Approaches Grammatical/Grammar-Based – Teacher-centered – Emphasis on the rules and structure of language Communication-Based – Student-centered – Emphasis on communication and use of language in meaningful contexts – Emphasis on comprehensible input to foster communication and lower anxiety Content-Based – Interaction in English that develops language skills and prepares ELLs to study grade-level content material – Focus on language, but with graded introduction to content areas, vocabulary and basic concepts
Additional Approaches Silent Way – Teacher modeling/talk, reinforcement through repetition/signals, seldom content-based Whole Language Approach (Goodman, Goodman and Hood) – Emphasis on language learning in all four domains (listening, speaking, reading, writing) through an integrated approach Suggestopedia – Relaxed physical setting, minimal error correction, use of L1 for explanations, not necessarily content-based
Cognitive Academic Language Learning (CALLA) Integrates instruction in priority topics from the content curriculum Focuses on development of the language skills needed for learning in school; specifically focuses on CALP development in L1 and L2 as related to content areas Provides explicit instruction in using learning strategies for academic tasks Provides evelopmentally appropriate language instruction Focuses on activating prior knowledge Provides explicit instruction in the following learning strategies: – Metacognitive – Cognitive – Social/Affective
Strategies and Techniques Collaborating with Teachers Listening Comprehension Strategies Speaking Strategies Reading Comprehension Strategies Writing Strategies
Collaboration with Teachers One teach, one observe One teach, one assist Team teaching Parallel teaching – Class split in half – Teachers simultaneously provide the same instruction Station teaching – Instruction divided into multiple stations in the room – Each teacher provides instruction at one station – Each student participates at each station Alternative teaching – One teacher takes a small group to the side of the room for instruction
Listening Comprehension Strategies Repetition Gestures Facial expressions Realia Illustrations Slowing the pace of instruction Tone of voice Targeted vocabulary
Speaking Strategies One-on-one conferences with students Group activities Brainstorming and problem-solving sessions Group discussions Role-playing Reenactments Presentations (recitations, summarizations, asking questions, speeches, etc.) Sentence frames and vocabulary walls to draw from in speaking
Writing Strategies Model (verbalize their thinking and writing) Visuals before writing (models, examples, pictures, realia, etc.) Cooperative learning (collective exploration of topics and writing) Teach writing process explicitly Break writing projects into small chunks Teach grammar in context of writing Integrate spelling into writing instruction Provide a list of core words for students to use in writing (focus words for the writing) – word walls, vocabulary banks, etc.