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Lecture #10 Program Models, Bilingualism, and Language Variations © 2014 MARY RIGGS 1
Not all are currently in use in California Other states and countries use variations on these models Studies on program effectiveness include research in the U.S., Canada, England, and various places on the European continent Short term programs are generally found to be least effective © 2014 MARY RIGGS 2 Programs for ELLs
Goals: full bilingualism and academic achievement for ELL and EO students Philosophy: pluralism and cognitive advantage Language: L1 and L2 used with equal status Staff: taught by qualified bilingual teachers Class: 50/50 Time: 7-9 years of consistent enrollment from K-1 Highest program effectiveness (Collier & Thomas studies) © 2014 MARY RIGGS 3 Two-Way Bilingual (Dual Immersion)
Goal: full bilingualism Philosophy: academic achievement in L1 & L2, positive psycho-social development Language: L1 and L2 Staff: sufficient bilingual teachers Class: students from a single L1 Time: 5-7 years with decreasing level of L1 instruction Less effective than Dual Immersion (Collier) © 2014 MARY RIGGS 4 Late Exit Bilingual (Maintenance)
Goal: rapid English development Philosophy: fast track to English Language: L1 with rapid shift to English Staff: fewer bilingual, more ELD and CLAD Class: EO and ELL together Time: 2-3 years Less effective than Late Exit © 2014 MARY RIGGS 5 Early Exit Bilingual (Transitional)
Goal: full bilingualism in L1 and L2 Philosophy: bilingual, bicultural Language: French until grade 2, then English is gradually added and increased Staff: native French speakers Class: all EO; high socioeconomic status Time: K-6; read in L1 & L2 by end of 6 th Highly effective because students are high-prestige group © 2014 MARY RIGGS 6 Immersion (French-Canadian)
Goals: ELD and content Philosophy: alternative to L1 instruction Language: L2 only Staff: CLAD teachers provide ELD Class: multiple L1s, 4-5 proficiency levels Time: 1 year in CA, in practice 2-3 years Least effective accepted program model © 2014 MARY RIGGS 7 Structured Immersion
Goal: put student into a regular, mainstream classroom Philosophy: sink or swim Language: L2 Staff: any teacher Class: all L1 groups Time: indeterminate Not officially accepted in most areas because it is least effective for students © 2014 MARY RIGGS 8 Submersion
1.Degree of phonology, orthography, syntax, lexicon, semantics, style varies 2.Functions can vary externally, depending on contacts, home, community & school languages, mass media, and correspondence 3.Functions can vary internally, depending on non- communicative uses and intrinsic aptitudes © 2014 MARY RIGGS 9 Bilingualism: a Relative Concept
4.Alternation occurs in topic, person, and tension 5.Interference can occur because of medium, style, register, and context © 2014 MARY RIGGS 10 Bilingualism: a Relative Concept
Research (neurological mapping) shows increased development of brain in bilinguals Research (psychological testing) indicates faster processing time in bilinguals Research (training in hypothesis formation) shows higher quantity of output by bilinguals, possibly due to conceptual flexibility and ambiguity tolerance © 2014 MARY RIGGS 11 Cognitive Function
Communicative competence varies: Grammatical competence in lexicon, morphology, phonology, syntax, orthography, semantics Discourse competence in conversation and writing Sociolinguistic competence in cultural norms, register, appropriateness Strategic competence in paraphrase, circumlocution, repetition, hesitation, avoidance, guessing, changes in register, and style © 2014 MARY RIGGS 12 Language Variations
1.Instrumental: to cause something to happen Pass your papers forward. 2.Regulatory: to maintain control If youre quiet, you can play a game. 3.Representational: to explain, state, or report Its cold today. 4.Interactional: to maintain social contacts How are you today? © 2014 MARY RIGGS 13 Language Functions
5.Personal: to express feelings and emotions I really hated that movie. 6.Heuristic: to learn or acquire knowledge Why is the sky blue? 7.Imaginative: to tell stories, play on words, or write poetry It was a dark and stormy night. © 2014 MARY RIGGS 14 Language Functions
Attention-getting Topic nomination (quantity, quality, relevance) Topic development (clarification, shifting, avoidance, interruption) Topic termination © 2014 MARY RIGGS 15 Discourse Analysis
Females: connection and rapport; tend to support topics of others; may use indirect strategies such as hedging Males: status and report; tend to use language to prove competence, prowess, or to provide concrete details. Mostly direct strategies. © 2014 MARY RIGGS 16 Gender Discourse Analysis
Gesture Body Language Eye contact Proxemics Artifacts Kinesthetics (touching) Smelling © 2014 MARY RIGGS 17 Kinesics
End of Lecture #10 © 2014 MARY RIGGS 18
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