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Cycle First Aid by Steve Evans SRPara MCPara Liverpool Century RC Member.

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Presentation on theme: "Cycle First Aid by Steve Evans SRPara MCPara Liverpool Century RC Member."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cycle First Aid by Steve Evans SRPara MCPara Liverpool Century RC Member

2 Cycle First Aid

3 Aims of First Aid Preserve Life Prevent Condition Worsening Promote Recovery Send for Help Early 999 or 112

4 Systematic Approach C-Care – Be aware of danger to yourself A dead rescuer is no good to anybody and to the casualty and others Moving traffic Blind Bends Spilt fuel Create a NO smoking area

5 Systematic Approach C-Care R-Reconnaissance – You need to know how many Casualties there are, for each unconscious / seriously injured casualty you need an Ambulance ( 3 on the floor = 3 Ambulances )

6 Systematic Approach C – R – Inform – Dial 999 or 112 for the Ambulance Service or other Emergency Services if there is spilt fuel, threat of fire, trapped casualties, dangers to others

7 Systematic Approach C – R – I – Treat the casualties according to their needs remember your Priorities Catastrophic bleed, Airway, Breathing Do NOT Move the Casualty unless their life is threatened

8 Common Injuries Head on - Head and Face, Potential Neck – check the damage to the cars windscreen, Chest or Abdominal, fractures to thigh bone, (handle bars) hand / thumb Side impact - Traumatic amputation of lower leg or fractures / dislocated ankle FOOSH - Fractured Clavicle/Shoulder, broken wrist/forearm Over Half of Cyclist who end up in hospital have Head injuries,50% Arm, 40% Leg, 5% Chest/abdomen. Road Rash

9 Common Injuries

10 Consider the Damage Look at the potential for injuries,internal and external

11 Priorities Catastrophic (life Threatening ) Bleed Airway – clear if blocked or open if not breathing, being aware of potential Neck Injury, Cover open chest wounds Cervical Awareness – DO NOT Remove Helmet unless life is threatened Breathing – if No then start resuscitation

12 The No 1 Cause of Death The No 1 Cause of Death in Trauma is a blocked Airway When Unconscious the tongue drops to the back of the Casualty s throat blocking their airway This is preventable by performing a Jaw Thrust or Chin Lift

13 Tongue Blocking Airway

14 Jaw Thrust

15 Criteria for Helmet Removal A Blocked Airway that cannot be cleared in any other way The Casualty's Chest or Abdomen is not rising and falling (Not Breathing) The need for Resuscitation Remember that it takes 2 Persons to remove a Helmet safely

16 Control Of Haemorrhage

17 Wound Types Contusion (bruise) Laceration – tearing of the tissue Incision – clean cut with sharp knife Puncture – penetrating wound Graze / abrasion – Road Rash

18 Road Rash

19 These injuries look and feel painful Look beyond the gore Are there underlying injuries Fractures Internal Injuries/bleeding Head Injuries

20 Road Rash Treatment Check for Underlying Injuries Wash out Dirt and Grit Cover with Clean dressing Needs scrubbing within a medical centre to prevent scaring and promote healing Moist dressings help the healing process Check for Infection later on,i.e. redness, hot to touch, swelling in Armpit or Groin

21 Body s Reaction to Bleeding The body reacts three ways to control bleeding Blood clots Ends of vessels contract Blood pressure falls

22 Blood Loss P-Posture / Position E-Expose / Examine

23 Foreign Objects

24 Splinter from the Velodrome track

25 Blood Loss P-Posture / Position E-Expose / Examine E-Elevate P-Pressure

26 Pressure Points Brachial – Upper arm, underneath the bicep muscle pressing against the upper arm bone

27 Pressure Points

28 Brachial – Upper arm, underneath the bicep muscle pressing against the upper arm bone Femoral – upper 3 rd of the groin pressing the femoral artery against the rim of the pelvis this will take 2 thumbs


30 Pressure Points Brachial – Upper arm, underneath the bicep muscle pressing against the upper arm bone Femoral – upper 3 rd of the groin pressing the femoral artery against the rim of the pelvis this will take 2 thumbs Apply for Max 10 mins then release for 1 minute to flush the build up of toxins then re-apply if required

31 Shock Signs & Symptoms Pale, cool, clammy skin Ashen, cyanosed skin Fast weak pulse Rapid shallow breathing Nausea Feeling faint – lower level of consciousness

32 Shock-The Falling Lift Early – Disorientated / Confused Compensates by – Fast Pulse - Rapid Breathing - Pale cool Clammy Skin Feels Faint Late Sign – Cyanosed Late Sign - Unconsciousness

33 Shock - Treatment Treat the possible cause Loosen tight clothing Rest – comfortable position Reassurance – Nil by Mouth Consider raising the legs – Not in Cardiac cases

34 Head Injuries Laceration to scalp Concussion – shaking of the brain Compression – Bleeding in skull Skull fracture – cranium / base

35 Levels of Consciousness Alert and responsive Verbal - Responding to speech Pain - Responding to pain Unresponsive -No response These are most important when dealing with severe head injuries

36 Compression Head Injury

37 Bleeding within the Skull compressing the brain Loss of Consciousness Unequal Pupils Flushed face Slow full bounding pulse Vomiting TREATMENT = 999 Ambulance Be Neck Injury Aware

38 Concussion Shaking of the brain Loss of Consciousness – amnesia Vomiting Headache/dizziness = Hospital Broken helmet = more serious Treatment, Monitor the Patient for changes, take to hospital if concerned

39 Head Injury Treatment Gain history Monitor AVPU, Breathing, pulse Dress any wounds If Unconscious A.B.C.

40 Functions of the Skeleton Gives shape and support Protects internal organs Along side major bones are major blood vessels / nerves for protection

41 Classifications of Fractures Closed – the bone is fractured but there is no external wound Open – there is an external wound leading to the site of the fracture. The bone may be protruding Complicated – the ends of the bones have damaged underlying organs

42 Hand Injuries

43 FOOSH-Arm Injuries

44 Broken Collar Bone


46 Complications of Collar Bone injury Damage to Underlying Organs- Punctured Lung causing difficulty in breathing Damage to blood vessels- Arteries and veins leading to blood loss Damage to nerves- loss of movement or sensation

47 Signs and Symptoms of Collar Bone Injury Pain over the area of the break A bump may be felt or a step seen A reddish-purple bruise starts to appear The shoulder appears to sag or drop Inability to raise the arm due to pain People report a popping or snapping sound

48 Treatment of Collar Bone Injury Look for Underlying problems, breathing or massive swelling Apply a sling or at least support the injured side Treat for shock Give pain relief if available Send to hospital for an X-Ray Do not allow to ride any further

49 Leg Injuries

50 Signs & Symptoms of a fracture Swelling Loss of movement Irregularity Pain Deformity Unnatural movement Crepitus Tenderness Shock

51 Fractures - Treatment Upper limbs – support in a comfortable position Lower limbs – do NOT move unless life is threatened Lower limbs – do NOT attempt to straighten limbs Treat for Shock

52 Strains & Sprains Strain – history of over stretching - sudden sharp pain - swelling possible cramps Sprain – history of twisting a joint - pain at joint - swelling possible discolouration

53 Strains & Sprains Treatment Treatment for both R.I.C.E. Rest Ice – bag of frozen peas in a cloth Compress – not to tight Elevate – to the height of a stool

54 Spinal Injuries

55 The Spine

56 Spinal Injuries

57 Spinal Injuries - Causes Sports accidents Road Traffic Collisions Falls Vertical Deceleration Injury Diving Accidents Head injuries Direct force injuries

58 Spinal Injuries – Signs & Symptoms History is Vital May be no obvious signs of injury Lack of sensation Pins & Needles Inability to move limbs Back or Neck pain No symptoms present – damage yet to be done

59 Spinal Injuries - Treatment If you suspect a spinal injury The Casualty must Not be moved unless their life is threatened Keep the head still – Trauma Head hold Do not allow others to interfere Remember – there is no second chance

60 Trauma Head Hold

61 Spinal Injuries If there is Vomit or blood in the Casualty s airway and it cannot be cleared. Then there is need for a Log Roll to be performed Log Rolls can only be performed safely with 4 persons, one to hold the head and control the rest of the group, there is a need to work as a team and roll the Casualty on to their side as one unit (Log)

62 Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation

63 Priorities for CPR D-Danger R-Response S - Stop Life Threatening Bleeding A-Airway - be Neck Injury Aware B-Breathing NO dial 999 C-Compressions / Rescue Breaths (1 person to hold the head)

64 Trauma Head Hold

65 Hand Position - Adult

66 Adult Basic Life Support Notes The determinant for starting CPR is now a patient who is Not breathing normally. This indicates agonal or cheyne-stokes breathing where the heart has already Stopped. Agonal breathing is characterised by respiratory effort in short gasps, with absences in breathing up to seconds in-between gasps. There is no longer an initial 2 ventilations. Once a decision to commence has been made, the rescuer starts with 30 compressions. There are no longer any pulse or circulation checks once CPR has started. The determinant for stopping resuscitation is a patient who is Breathing normally. The rescuer has the option to perform compression- only CPR, at a rate of 100 compressions per minute. This is where the need for mouth-to-mouth would previously have prevented people from doing anything.

67 Effectiveness of Rescuer CPR Number of Compressions Approved Compressions 1 min % 2 min % 3 min % 4 min % 5 min % Hightower D: Annals of Emergency. Medic. (1995) Sept 26:3

68 ICE in your Mobile It is recommended that you place In Case of Emergency (ICE) in your contacts within your Mobile phone It is good practice as Emergency workers like Doctors, Nurses and Paramedic will be able to contact your family if you are Unconscious or Badly injured Place Name, Number and relationship

69 Really Bad Cycling Injury Helmet Hair


71 Cycle First Aid by Steve Evans SRPara MCPara Liverpool Century RC Member

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