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Ch. 3 Weather and Climate lrPS2HiYVp8 lrPS2HiYVp8.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 3 Weather and Climate lrPS2HiYVp8 lrPS2HiYVp8."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 3 Weather and Climate lrPS2HiYVp8 lrPS2HiYVp8

2 Section 1 Factors Affecting Climate I.The Sun and Latitude A. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a given time and place B. Climate-weather conditions in a region over a long period of time C. The closer you are to the tropics and the suns direct rays, the warmer you are…duh

3 D.Temperature-measurement of heat E.Atmosphere reflects half of suns energy and absorbs the other half which heats up the earth F.Greenhouse Effect-Earth allows suns heat in, traps it and slowly allows it to release into space G. Global Warming-CO2 absorbs heat H. Some say man is responsible while others say its a natural cycle


5 Do you know? How does the Earths Atmosphere help keep the planet Warm? Green house effect- slowing the loss of heat into space

6 Random Fact Venus and global warming –Venus is 96 % CO2 and because of this it is 890 F The Little Ice age 1500s -1800s

7 II.Atmospheric Pressure A. Pressure of air B. Higher you go, less pressure C. As air heats up, it expands, becomes less dense and rises (low pressure system)

8 D. Air rises, cools and forms water vapor E. Centers of low pressure systems are called cyclones… sometimes a slight breeze while other times a powerful storm F. High pressure systems are created from cold air sinking towards the Earth G. Usually bring stable, clear and dry weather

9 Do you Know What kind of weather is usually associated with an area of Low pressure? Unstable weather, anything from a slight breeze to bad storms

10 H. Look at pressure diagram on Page 43. III. Global Wind Belts A. Wind flows from high pressure areas to low pressure areas B. Tire C. Prevailing winds-blow from the same direction all the time…NE and SE trade winds, westerlies, easterlies D. Doldrums-along Equator, calm…little wind


12 E. Front-two air masses of widely different temperatures or moisture levels meet F. Usually results in precipitation G. Prevailing winds up in atmosphere make up the jet stream… wind speed can reach 300 miles per hour H. Jet streams move heat and major weather patterns


14 Do you Know? How is wind directly related to the differences of air pressure? Wind flows from high areas of high pressure to low pressure areas

15 IV.Ocean and Currents A. Water heats and cools more slowly than land B. Locations near large bodies of water have more consistent temps then inland locations C. Earths wind, rotation and temperatures create currents (great rivers of sea water) D. Move clockwise in NH and counter in SH


17 E.Currents help balance water temperatures in the oceans by moving it all around.

18 Do you know? What are the main forces that create ocean currents? Wind, earths rotation, varying ocean temperatures

19 Read to Discover What are the common forms of precipitation, and how are they formed? How do mountains and elevation affect weather and climate? What are the different types of storms, and how do they form? Section 2: Weather Factors

20 Formation of Precipitation RainSnowSleetHail Condensation clouds, dew, fog, frost EvaporationHumidity Section 2: Weather Factors

21 RainLiquid formed through condensation of water vapor SnowIce crystals formed in clouds SleetRain that freezes as it falls HailChunks of ice formed in storm clouds Section 2: Weather Factors Forms of Precipitation

22 Increase in elevation causes drop in temperature. Mountains cause orographic effect: Moist air meets a barrier and is pushed upward, causing cooling, condensation, and precipitation. Mountainside facing wind is the windward, wetter side; side facing away from wind is the leeward, drier side, called the rain shadow. Section 2: Weather Factors

23 Middle-latitude storms form when cold, dry polar air mixes with moist, warm tropical air. Examples include thunderstorms and tornadoes. Tropical storms are usually smaller and lack fronts. Examples include hurricanes and typhoons. Section 2: Weather Factors Types of Storms

24 Read to Discover How do the two tropical climates differ? What conditions are common in dry climates? What climates are found in the middle latitudes? What characterizes high-latitude and highland climates? Section 3: Climate and Vegetation Patterns

25 Tropical Humid Climate Close to equator Warm temperatures Rainfall all year Receives Suns rays directly all year Rising warm air Rain forests Monsoons Tropical Wet and Dry Climates North and south of tropical humid Caused by seasonal change in this area Alternating wet and dry seasons Savannas Section 3: Climate and Vegetation Patterns

26 Generally centered about 30 degrees north and south of equator Subtropical high-pressure zone causes sinking dry air, with little rain. Winters may be very cold, summers very hot. Hardy plants and animals Section 3: Climate and Vegetation Patterns Dry Climate Areas

27 MediterraneanLong, dry summers and mild winters; scrub woodland vegetation Humid SubtropicalHot, humid summers and mild winters; temperate forests Marine West CoastMild all year; may support dense forests Humid ContinentalVariable, with four seasons; enough rain to support forests Section 3: Climate and Vegetation Patterns Middle-Latitude Climates

28 SubarcticLong, cold winters and short, warm summers; vast evergreen forests TundraLong winters, with permafrost; low shrubs, lichens, mosses, ferns Ice CapPolar climates; few land plants or animals HighlandVaries by elevation, with low elevations relatively mild and high elevations similar to ice cap Section 3: Climate and Vegetation Patterns High-Latitude and Highland Climates

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