2 Sun & LatitudeWeather: condition of the atmosphere at a given time & placeClimate: weather conditions in a geographic region over a long timetilt of the Earth as it revolves around the Sun is impt. in determination of weather/climate
3 Sun & Latitude continued Earth absorbs Sun’s energy=solar energy converted into heatTemperature: measurement of heatEarth’s atmosphere traps heat energy in a process called the greenhouse effectHelps keep the planet warmEvidence shows the Earth has gotten warmer in recent decades --- global warming
4 Sun & Latitude continued Causes of Global Warming:Burning coal, natural gas & oil adds carbon dioxide to the lower atmosphere
5 PrecipitationWater vapor plays an important role in atmospheric processesw/out it there would be no clouds, rain, or stormsEvaporation: process by which water changes from a liquid to a gasAmt. of water vapor in the air is called humidity
6 Precipitation continued The higher the temperature, the more water vapor the air can holdWhen air cools, it will reach a temperature at which it cannot hold anymore water vapor then condensation occursCondensation: process by which water vapor changes from a gas into liquid dropletsTypes of condensation: clouds, dew, fog, frost, rain (if condensed water droplets become large enough)
7 Elevation & Mountain Effects High elevation affects weather & climateIncrease in elevation, drop in temperatureOrographic Effect – when clouds/weather hit the side of a mountain, they are forced up. As they rise, the temperature drops & causes precipitation.Windward – side of the mountain facing the wind; receives most of the precipitation.Leeward – back side of the mountain; receives very little precipitation.
8 Rain Shadow – Area behind the leeward side of a mountain; usually a desert.
9 Storms Sudden violent weather events Tornadoes: twisting spirals of airU.S. experiences more than any other countryHurricanes: most powerful/destructive tropical cyclonesHeavy rains/high winds/155 mphBegin over warm tropical seas, usually in the Atlantic Oceanflooding
10 Storms continued Typhoons Western Pacific Ocean Dangerous high waves Produce thunderstorms/tornadoesflooding
11 Tropical Climates Tropical Humid Climate Tropical Wet Dry Climate close to the EquatorWarm temps/rainfallTropical Wet Dry ClimateJust to the north & south of the tropical humid climateTropical savanna climateThis climate will support savannas: areas of tropical grasslands, scattered trees, shrubs
12 Dry Climates Arid Climate Semiarid Climate Desert climate 30˚ north & south of the EquatorSubtropical high-pressure zoneCan lie deep in the interior of continentsSemiarid ClimateTransition zone btwn arid climate & more humid climatessunny & warm year-round but receive more rain that arid deserts
13 Middle Latitude Climates Mediterranean ClimateCoastal area of southern Europe, west coasts of continents w/ cool ocean currentsLong, sunny, dry summersMild wintersHumid Subtropical ClimateEastern side of continents where there are warm ocean currentsHot/humid summersMild winters w/ some snow2 types of forests --- deciduous (lose leaves) & coniferous (green all year)
14 Middle Latitude Climates continued Marine West CoastHeavily influenced by oceansGenerally found on west coasts of continentsWinters are foggy, cloudy, rainyMild temperatures all year longHumid Continental ClimateFound in interiors & east coasts of upper-middle latitude continentsCan experience 4 distinct seasons