2 Weather: The condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place. Climate: The average, year after year, conditions of temperature, precipitation, winds and clouds in an area.Microclimates: Climate conditions within a small area that differ from those in the surrounding area.Examples: parks, cities, areas near lakes or ponds, gardens, etc.
3 Two main factors that causes Climate - Temperature (cold or warm climate)Precipitation (dry or humid climate)
4 Factors Affecting Temperature LatitudeAltitudeDistance From Large Bodies of WaterOcean Currents
5 LatitudeLatitude: The distance in degrees north or south of the equator.Based on latitude Earth’s surface can be divided into 3 Temperature ZonesTropical Zones: warm climatesTemperate Zones: ranging temperaturesPolar Zones: cold climates
8 Altitude Altitude: elevation above sea level High land areas have cooler climatesFor example: Mt. Kilimanjaro, in East Africa is covered with snow all year round although it is near equator (3 degrees south latitude.Higher altitudes = cooler temperaturesLower altitudes = warmer temperatures
9 Distance From Large Bodies of Water Marine Climates: warmer winters and cooler summersWhere? Much of the west coast of North America, South America, and Europe.Continental Climates: colder winters and warmer summers (extreme temperatures)Where? Most of Canada and Russia, Central United States.
10 Ocean CurrentsOcean Currents- Streams of water within the oceans that move in regular patterns.Oceans and lakes can affect temperatures / climate3 examples: Gulf Stream (warm water currents), North Atlantic Drift (brings milder and humid air to Ireland and Southern England) , California Current (cool water current)
12 Factors Affecting Precipitation Prevailing WindsPresence of Mountain RangesSeasonal Winds
13 Prevailing Windsmovement of air masses caused by directional winds in a regionThe amount of water vapor in an air mass influences how much rain or snow will fallThe amount of water vapor in the prevailing wind depends on where the wind comes from
14 Mountain RangesAir forced up the mountain cools, condenses, and creates cloudsFalls as precipitation on windward side (The side of the mountain that faces the wind).Leeward side (the side of the mountain range that faces away from the oncoming wind) of mountain has drier conditions.
15 Seasonal Winds Monsoons are type of seasonal winds. Similar to sea or land breezes, but occurs over wider area.Monsoons are type of seasonal winds.Monsoons: Sea or land breeze over a large region that changes direction with the seasons.Thailand and part of India get most of the rain from the summer monsoons.The winter monsoons winds brings very little rain to same regions.