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Chapter 18 Section 1.  Identify factors that influence temperature and precipitation.  Explain what causes the seasons.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Section 1.  Identify factors that influence temperature and precipitation.  Explain what causes the seasons."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 18 Section 1

2  Identify factors that influence temperature and precipitation.  Explain what causes the seasons.

3  What is the weather like today?  Is today’s weather typical of the weather we normally have this time of year?  What do you think causes the seasons? (turn and talk)

4  The main factors that influence temperature are latitude, altitude, distance from large bodies of water, and ocean currents.

5  Generally, locations near the equator have warmer climates than those locations nearer to the poles.  Based on latitude, Earth can be divided into 3 temperature zones: ◦ Polar- near poles, cold ◦ Temperate- hot summers, cold winters ◦ Tropical- near equator, hot

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7  Some mountains are near the equator, but the temperature is still cold! How? (Turn and talk)  In the Troposphere, temperature decreases about 6.5 degrees Celsius for every kilometer.

8  Winds off the ocean often prevent extremes of hot and cold in costal regions.  These areas often have mild summers and mild winters. (marine climates)  Central areas often have more extreme conditions. (continental climates)

9  Ocean current- stream of water within the oceans that move in regular patterns.  Some warm ocean currents move from the tropics toward the poles which warms the nearby land.  In the same way, cold currents move toward the equator which brings cool air.

10  The main factors that affect precipitation are prevailing winds, the presence of mountains, and seasonal winds.

11  Air masses are moved from place to place by prevailing winds (the directional winds that usually blow in a region).  The amount of water vapor in the air mass influences how much rain or snow will fall.  The amount of water vapor in prevailing winds also depends on where the winds come from.  Winds that blow from oceans or large lakes carry more water vapor than winds from land.

12  A mountain range in the path of a prevailing wind can also influence where precipitation falls.  When humid winds from the ocean blow toward a mountain, the are forced to rise.  When they rise, the air cools and water vapor condenses to form clouds.  Windward-the side of the mountain that the wind hits.

13  Seasonal change in wind patterns can effect precipitation.  Monsoons-sea and land breezes over a large region that change direction with the season.

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