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General conditions of temp & precipitation for an area over a long period of time. Southwest US – hot, dry all year.

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Presentation on theme: "General conditions of temp & precipitation for an area over a long period of time. Southwest US – hot, dry all year."— Presentation transcript:



3 General conditions of temp & precipitation for an area over a long period of time. Southwest US – hot, dry all year.

4 Climate of a region is determined by: 1. Temperature 2. Precipitation

5 FACTORS THAT AFFECT TEMP 1.Latitude- measure of the distance N & S of equator. Closer to equator, more direct sunlight, warmer climate. Farther away from equator, less sunlight, cooler climate.

6 2. Elevation- as elevation increases, air cools & cant hold as much moisture so temp decreases.


8 3. Ocean Currents - a river of water that flows in a definite path in the ocean. The surface temp of water affects the temp of the air.

9 Warm water currents travel away from equator. Cold water currents travel toward the equator. Land near currents is affected by the temp of the ocean currents.

10 4. Distances From Water Oceans greatly moderate the temps of nearby land. Water heats/cools slower than land.

11 FACTORS THAT AFFECT PRECIPITATION 1.Prevailing Winds - Carries different amounts of moisture which affects precipitation.

12 Winds that blow from sea to land carry more moisture. Places in the center of a land mass have dry climates.

13 Region that receives less than 25cm of precipitation in one year.

14 2. MOUNTAIN RANGES Act as barriers to winds Mountains cause air to rise 2 parts of a mountain: windward side & leeward side

15 A) Windward side- receives a lot of precipitation. Faces the wind. B) Leeward side- drier air. Faces away from wind.

16 How Mtns. Affect Precip. Air is forced up. As it rises, it starts to cool. Cold air cant hold as much moisture so precipitation occurs on the windward side. Air that comes over the Mtn. (leeward side) is drier.

17 3. SEASONAL WINDS Monsoon- a major landbreeze or seabreeze that changes direction with the seasons.

18 THE SEASONS Most places outside the tropics have 4 seasons: summer, fall, winter, & spring.

19 Causes of Seasons Tilted Axis- the tilt of the earths axis as the earth travels around the sun. Tilted on an angle of 23.5

20 The north end of the axis is pointed away from the sun for part of the year (Winter)& toward the sun for another part of the year (Summer).


22 In summer, N. hemisphere is tilted towards the sun = more direct sunlight, warmer temps. (June) In the winter, N. Hemisphere is pointed away from sun = less sunlight, colder temps. (December)



25 CLASSIFICATION Climates are classified according to: 1. Temperature 2. Precipitation

26 6 Main Climate Regions 1.Tropical rainy 2.Dry 3.Temperate marine 4.Temperate continental 5.Polar 6.Highlands

27 Found in low-lying lands near equator. 2 types: Tropical Wet, & Tropical Wet-&-Dry.

28 Hot/Humid, many rainy days, over 10meters/year. Windward side of Hawaii Rain Forest- forests in which large amounts of rain fall year- round.

29 Hot, receives slightly less rain & has a distinct dry & rainy season. Savannas- tropical grassland Southern Florida

30 A climate is dry if the amount of precipitation that falls is less than the amount that evaporates. Arid Climate & Semiarid Climate.

31 Desert, with little precipitation (less than 25cm/year). Hot, sandy & cold or rocky Parts of California & Southwest.

32 Dry but receives 25-50cm of precipitation/year. Steppe- dry region that gets enough rainfall for short grasses & bushes to grow. Great Plains

33 Along the coasts of temperate continents Humid (50F+) in summer & mild winters (20F to 64F). Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast.

34 Coastal climate that is drier & warmer than West Coast Marine. Mild winters, cool summers, & moderate rainfall. (agriculture) Southern California,

35 Warm, dry summers & rainy winters Northern California to Southern Alaska Because of heavy precipitation, thick forests grow here.

36 Hot/Humid summers & cool winters. Warm & wet. Southeast US Forests, oranges, peaches, sugarcane.

37 Only found on continents in the Northern Hemisphere. Not influenced by oceans- you get extreme temps. 50F or above to 20F or below

38 Hot, humid summers & cold winters with moderate precipitation year round. NE United States, Mid West US.

39 Short, cool summers & long, cold winters with light precipitation. Eastern Alaska, Canada

40 Coldest climate, Avg. temps below 50F in warmest month. Includes North & South Poles, Icecaps, & tundras.

41 Stretches from northern Alaska, Canada, & Russia. Short cool summers, bitterly cold winters.

42 PERMAFROST Permanently frozen land, water cannot drain away so the soil is wet & boggy in summer. No trees, but moss/grass/shrubs grow.

43 Cooler & wetter than nearby lowlands. Temp decreases with altitude. Short summers, long, severe winters. NW US.


45 Studying Climate Changes If plants or animals today need certain conditions to live, then similar plants & animals in the past also required those conditions.

46 Types of Evidence to Study Climate Changes Fossil evidence Tree rings Pollen

47 Scientists study the pattern of thick or thin tree rings to tell about warm/cool or wet/dry climate.

48 Cold periods, Glacial episodes. Huge sheets of ice (glaciers) cover large parts of the Earths surface.

49 Last Ice Age was 10,500 yrs ago. Sheets of ice covered N Europe, & North America as low as Indiana & Iowa. A lot of water was frozen causing ocean level to drop.

50 1.Earths position 2.Solar energy input 3.Volcanic Activity 4.Movement of Continents


52 1. Ocean Currents- El Nino, La Nina 2. Global Warming 3. Ozone Depletion

53 Unusual pattern of warm winds & water that form over the Pacific Ocean & move eastward towards the coast of South America. Brings severe conditions- rain or drought.

54 Surface waters of eastern Pacific Ocean are colder than usual. Brings colder winters & greater precipitation to Pacific NW & North Central US. Greater hurricane activity in western Atlantic Ocean.

55 A gradual increase in temp. of earths atmosphere. Greenhouse effect Greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane trap heat. Human activities add greenhouse gases to the environment.

56 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are a major cause for depletion.

57 CFCs in air conditioners/aerosol sprays release CFCs into the air & they stay in the atmosphere & breakdown the ozone layer.

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