73. Ocean Currents- a river of water that flows in a definite path in the ocean. The surface temp of water affects the temp of the air.
8Warm water currents travel away from equator. Cold water currents travel toward the equator.Land near currents is affected by the temp of the ocean currents.
94. Distances From WaterOceans greatly moderate the temps of nearby land.Water heats/cools slower than land.
10FACTORS THAT AFFECT PRECIPITATION Prevailing Winds- Carries different amounts of moisture which affects precipitation.
11Winds that blow from sea to land carry more moisture. Places in the center of a land mass have dry climates.
12Region that receives less than 25cm of precipitation in one year. DESERTRegion that receives less than 25cm of precipitation in one year.
132. MOUNTAIN RANGES Act as barriers to winds Mountains cause air to rise2 parts of a mountain: windward side & leeward side
14A) Windward side- receives a lot of precipitation. Faces the wind A) Windward side- receives a lot of precipitation. Faces the wind. B) Leeward side- drier air. Faces away from wind.
15How Mtns. Affect Precip.Air is forced up. As it rises, it starts to cool.Cold air can’t hold as much moisture so precipitation occurs on the windward side.Air that comes over the Mtn. (leeward side) is drier.
163. SEASONAL WINDSMonsoon- a major landbreeze or seabreeze that changes direction with the seasons.
17THE SEASONSMost places outside the tropics have 4 seasons: summer, fall, winter, & spring.
18Causes of SeasonsTilted Axis- the tilt of the earth’s axis as the earth travels around the sun.Tilted on an angle of 23.5
19The north end of the axis is pointed away from the sun for part of the year (Winter)& toward the sun for another part of the year (Summer).
24CLASSIFICATION Climates are classified according to: 1. Temperature 2. Precipitation
256 Main Climate Regions Tropical rainy Dry Temperate marine Temperate continentalPolarHighlands
261. Tropical Rainy Climates Found in low-lying lands near equator.2 types: Tropical Wet, & Tropical Wet-&-Dry.
27Hot/Humid, many rainy days, over 10meters/year. Tropical WetHot/Humid, many rainy days, over 10meters/year.Windward side of HawaiiRain Forest- forests in which large amounts of rain fall year-round.
28Hot, receives slightly less rain & has a distinct dry & rainy season. Tropical Wet & DryHot, receives slightly less rain & has a distinct dry & rainy season.Savannas- tropical grasslandSouthern Florida
29Arid Climate & Semiarid Climate. 2. Dry ClimatesA climate is dry if the amount of precipitation that falls is less than the amount that evaporates.Arid Climate & Semiarid Climate.
30Desert, with little precipitation (less than 25cm/year). Arid ClimateDesert, with little precipitation (less than 25cm/year).Hot, sandy & cold or rockyParts of California & Southwest.
31Dry but receives 25-50cm of precipitation/year. Semiarid ClimateDry but receives 25-50cm of precipitation/year.Steppe- dry region that gets enough rainfall for short grasses & bushes to grow.Great Plains
323. Temperate Marine Climate Along the coasts of temperate continentsHumid (50F+) in summer & mild winters (20F to 64F).Mediterranean, Humid Subtropical, Marine West Coast.
33Coastal climate that is drier & warmer than West Coast Marine. MediterraneanCoastal climate that is drier & warmer than West Coast Marine.Mild winters, cool summers, & moderate rainfall. (agriculture)Southern California,
34Warm, dry summers & rainy winters Marine West CoastWarm, dry summers & rainy wintersNorthern California to Southern AlaskaBecause of heavy precipitation, thick forests grow here.
51Short-Term Climate Changes 1. Ocean Currents- El Nino, La Nina2. Global Warming3. Ozone Depletion
52Brings severe conditions- rain or drought. El NinoUnusual pattern of warm winds & water that form over the Pacific Ocean & move eastward towards the coast of South America.Brings severe conditions- rain or drought.
53Surface waters of eastern Pacific Ocean are colder than usual. La NinaSurface waters of eastern Pacific Ocean are colder than usual.Brings colder winters & greater precipitation to Pacific NW & North Central US.Greater hurricane activity in western Atlantic Ocean.
54A gradual increase in temp. of earth’s atmosphere. Greenhouse effect GLOBAL WARMINGA gradual increase in temp. of earth’s atmosphere.Greenhouse effectGreenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane trap heat.Human activities add greenhouse gases to the environment.
55Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are a major cause for depletion. Ozone DepletionChlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are a major cause for depletion.
56CFC’s in air conditioners/aerosol sprays release CFCs into the air & they stay in the atmosphere & breakdown the ozone layer.