Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 2 – Section 3 Climate, Weather and Vegetation

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 – Section 3 Climate, Weather and Vegetation"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 – Section 3 Climate, Weather and Vegetation
Geography Chapter 2 – Section 3 Climate, Weather and Vegetation Chernofsky - Geography

2 Chernofsky - Geography
What you will learn 1. What factors create climate and weather? 2. How are climate, plants and animal life related? Chernofsky - Geography

3 Chernofsky - Geography
Vocabulary Weather – the condition of the atmosphere at a certain time and place. Climate – weather conditions in an area over a long period of time. Prevailing winds – winds that blow in the same direction over large areas of Earth. Currents – warm ocean water from near the equator that moves in giant streams to colder areas. Rain shadow – the ‘dry areas’ created when air reaches the other side of the mountain and has lost most of its moisture. Chernofsky - Geography

4 Chernofsky - Geography
Weather and climate help determine what kind of plants grow in a certain place. Interactive World Vegetation Map Chernofsky - Geography

5 Factors Affecting Climate and Weather
The sun Solar heat makes life possible on Earth. The sun doesn’t heat Earth evenly. Areas closest to the north and south poles don’t receive direct rays from the sun. Because the Earth is tilted on its axis, areas away from the sun receive less heat. Regions closer to the equator receive more heat. The higher the place’s latitude, the less solar heat it gets and the colder its climate. Chernofsky - Geography

6 Chernofsky - Geography
Seasons Each year is divided into periods of time called SEASONS. Each season is known for a certain type of weather, based on temperature and amount of precipitation. Winter, spring, summer, fall – based on temperature. Dry and wet – based on precipitation. - Seasons change as Earth orbits the sun. Chernofsky - Geography

7 Chernofsky - Geography
Winds Winds created by changes in air pressure move solar heat around the planet. Cold air weighs more than warm air.– as warm air rises, cooler air moves in to replace the rising warm air, and this process results in creating what we know as ‘wind.’ Prevailing winds are what make a region warmer or colder, wetter or drier, depending on from where they blow. Chernofsky - Geography

8 Shifting Wind Patterns
Are one cause of seasonal change. eg: In January, winds from the north bring dry air to India. In June, the winds have shifted, coming from the southwest and bringing moisture from the Indian Ocean. Chernofsky - Geography

9 Chernofsky - Geography
Oceans and Currents Winds move ocean water in the same general directions as the air above it moves. Cold water flows from the polar regions to the tropics. Just as wind moves heat between places, so do ‘currents.’ Chernofsky - Geography

10 Chernofsky - Geography
The Gulf Stream Is an ocean current. Moves warm water north from the Gulf of Mexico to the east coast of the U.S. It then moves across the Atlantic Ocean toward Europe. The warm air that goes with it, keeps the winters milder in Europe than in Canada. Chernofsky - Geography

11 Other factors affecting climate
Distance form the ocean. Water heats and cools faster than land. Therefore, coastal areas do not have the wide differences in temperature that areas in the middle of continents have. Chernofsky - Geography

12 Chernofsky - Geography
Elevation and Mountain Effects The increase in elevation- that is, the height on Earth’s surface above sea level, causes a drop in temperature. The air is less dense at higher elevations. (that is, the air particles are further apart and have more area to move around in.) Warm, moist air blowing against a mountainside will rise. The side of the mountain facing the wind (‘windward’) often gets heavy rain, whereas, by the time the air reaches the other side of the mountain (‘leeward’), it has lost most of its moisture.-CREATES A DRY AREA CALLED A ‘RAIN SHADOW.’ Chernofsky - Geography

13 Chernofsky - Geography
Climate Regions There are 12 main climate types in terms of weather. These climate types effect the plants and animals that can grow and live in certain areas. Tropical wet Tropical wet and dry Semiarid Desert (arid) Mediterranean Humid subtropical Marine West Coast Humid continental Subarctic Tundra Icecap Highland Chernofsky - Geography

14 C - Moist Mid-latitude Climates with Mild Winters.
The Köppen Climate Classification System is the most widely used system for classifying the world's climates. Its categories are based on the annual and monthly averages of temperature and precipitation. The Köppen system recognizes five major climatic types; each type is designated by a capital letter. A - Tropical Moist Climates: all months have average temperatures above 18° Celsius. B - Dry Climates: with deficient precipitation during most of the year. C - Moist Mid-latitude Climates with Mild Winters. D - Moist Mid-Latitude Climates with Cold Winters. E - Polar Climates: with extremely cold winters and summers. Chernofsky - Geography

15 Chernofsky - Geography
The 12 Climate Regions Chernofsky - Geography

16 Climates Change Over Time
Did you know that the Sahara Desert was once a vast grassland? This happened in two phases, beginning about 6,700 to 5,500 years ago and then again 4,000 to 3,600 years ago. Orbital changes caused fairly sudden changes in North Africa’s climate. Researchers think that ancient civilizations in the Sahara may have moved to the Ile River valley in response to the climate changes. Chernofsky - Geography

17 This ends chapter 2 section 3
Review: 1. How does the sun’s heat affect temperature and winds? 2. what effect does the Gulf Stream have on Europe’s climates? What are the main factors affecting climate and weather? Why is there snow on mountain peaks during the summer? Explain how the tilt of the Earth on its axis has an affect on climate around the world. Know the vocabulary for this section. Chernofsky - Geography

18 Chernofsky - Geography
Explore your world! Blue Planet – Biomes Live Science-Plants and animals adapt to climate Chernofsky - Geography

Download ppt "Chapter 2 – Section 3 Climate, Weather and Vegetation"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google