* Weather is daily changes in temp and precipitation. * CLIMATE is the average year to year conditions.
* TEMPERATURE 1. Latitude Location 2. Altitude 3. Distance from Water 4. Ocean Currents * PRECIPITATION 1. Prevailing Winds 2. Mountains 3. Seasonal Winds
* MARINE CLIMATES: Located near large bodies of water. Climate has mild winters and cool summers. Wind off the ocean prevents extreme changes in temp (mild climate). * CONTINENTAL CLIMATES: Surrounded by land. Climate has cold winters and hot summers. More extreme changes in temp.
* Which side is the WINDWARD and which is the LEEWARD? * WINDWARD has lots of moisture (snow and rain) but little moisture is left when the air mass reaches the LEEWARD side. * LEEWARD side is dry / less moisture.
* TEMP Always above 18 C * PRECIPITATION Lots of moisture Year round / Wet and Dry seasons http://www.mathsisfun.com/measure/thermometer.html
* TEMP: Can be cold or hot * PRECIPIATION: Very, Very LOW precipitation
* TEMP: Warmest is 10 C or above Coldest is between -3 C and 18 C Mild changes in temp * PRECIPIATION: Humid and more rainfall in winter
* TEMP: Warmest is 10 C or above Coldest is -3 C or below More extreme temps than marine
* TEMP: In the warmest months temp is BELOW 10 C * PRECIPITATION: Cold air contains little moisture Relatively dry
MOVEMENT of CONTINENTS: * location of land and ocean change * Affects GLOBAL WIND and OCEAN CURRENTS – which changes global climate.
* ICE AGES: More elliptical orbit causes less sunlight to reach Earth – results in ice ages (100,000 yr cycles) * VOLCANIC ACTIVITY: Release ash and aerosols into the atmosphere Reflects sun rays causing cooler temps * SOLAR ENERGY: Cause short term changes Less solar energy can cause small ice ages
* Greenhouse gases (water vapor, CO2, methane) absorb/trap heat. * This is a natural effect that helps insulate Earth and keep it warm. * Increase in greenhouse gases cause and INCREASE in global temperatures.
* Melting Glaciers and Rising Sea Levels Over the last century glaciers have been melting worldwide Antarctica ice sheet temp has risen 6 degrees As ice sheets and glaciers melt, sea level rises * Regional Temp Changes Changes in regional climate * Drought and Desertification Rising temps causes regions to warm and become very dry. This can lead to desertification and food shortage. * Biosphere Changes As climate regions change, organisms are pushed to find new locations. Adaptations and Extinctions