2DOORS : INTRODUCTIONA door is a solid barrier to a doorway or opening.Can be opened for access and closed to deny access for privacy and security.Serves as a thermal, acoustic and fire barrier, also as a weather barrier as part of an external wall.
3A doorway is an opening in a wall or partition for access. A door frame is a frame or lining made of timber, metal or plastic, fixed in the doorway to which the door closes on hinges, pivots or runners.Doors are provided to give an access to the inside of the room of a building.Doors should be located that gives:-freedom of movement in and out of the room-Maximum use of accommodation in the room-Keeping privacy of the occupant.
4Functions of a DoorPrimary function :- Means of accessSecondary function:-PrivacyFunctional Requirements of DoorsAccessStrengthSecurityDaylightVentilationThermal InsulationWeather ResistanceFire resistance
5ACCESS-Adequate access relies on:WidthclearanceSTRENGTH-External door are often subjected to harsh treatmentSECURITY-The degree of security will depends on:-Selecting a door & frame of suitable strength.Providing suitable hanging & locking mechanism.Locating the door in the least vulnerable position.
6DAYLIGHT-Depend largely on:Size and shape of doorPosition of the doorEffects on internal & external reflectionVENTILATION-Small Building Regulation 1984 require habitable rooms to be ventilated by an area of openable door/window at least 10% of the room floor area.
7THERMAL INSULATION-All doors shall be provided with thermal insulation.WEATHER RESISTANCE-Designed to prevent the passage of water to the inside of the frame.FIRE RESISTANCE-Means of escape-Have a specific period of fire resistance (min. 0.5 hours)
8EXTERNAL DOORThe external door provides access to the outside of a home or building. In fact, the front door or external door is the first impression someone gets of the houseRequire more strength, provide security compare to internal door.Most common used of timber door:-Panelled door-Flush door-Boarded doorMetal door frequently used for buildings such as shops & office.Standard sizes available: 1981 mm high x 762 or 838 mm width.
9Panelled DoorComprising a timber frame, a solid panel & a glass panel.Objective of used:-To obtain skeleton framework in which the tendency to shrinkage is reduced.-To provide a pleasant appearanceThe basic framework consist of:-Stile at each side of the door (at least 10 cm wide)-Horizontal top rail-Bottom rail (15 cm wide)-Intermediate rails-A lock rail for housing the door lock (15 cm wide)-’Mullions’ or ‘muntin’ (vertical member)
10b)Flush DoorHave flat front & back surfaces made of materials such as:-Plywood-Hardboard-Laminated plasticsProvides a clean surface & extensively used these days.The commonly used forms of construction for flush doors:-Solid core-Skeleton core-Cellular core
11c)Boarded DoorDifferent forms of boarded door:-Ledged & Battened Door-Battened, Ledged & Braced Door-Framed, Battened, Ledged & Braced DoorLedged & Battened DoorSimplest form of boarded door constructionThe ledges (bottom, middle & top) are horizontal timber rails which hold together the boardsOnly used for such purposes as temporary buildings or shedsThe door is hung on a pair of steel ‘T’ hinges, which are screwed to the top and bottom ledges.LedgeBracebatten
12PLYWOODTIMBERMETALSMATERIALS OF DOORCONCRETEGLASS
13TIMBER-Most commonly used for domestic external door construction.-Good polish-Different types of mouldings can produce an attractive appearance.PLYWOOD-Useful for doors which have to made flushMETAL-Greater rigidity, life & fire resistance
14CONCRETE-Used in areas where there is a danger of disintegration.GLASS-Used in panel door to admit light-Big openings provide good appearance
16FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF WINDOW DAYLIGHTDepend on:-Size & shape of the windowsSize & distribution of the members of the window frameThe position of the window in relation to the roomThe effect of internal & material light reflection
17Thermal insulation film VENTILATIONMay be achieved by use of openable windowsTHERMAL & SOUND INSULATIONWindows are the weak link in the ability of an external wall to provide good thermal & sound insulation.Providing a good seal between the openable portion & the fixed portions of the window & improve sound insulation.It may be achieved by fitting metal or plastic.Thermal insulation film
18WEATHER RESISTANCEWindow frames are designed to prevent the passage of water to the middle of the frame. Design features which are often incorporated in a frame include:--weathering:-when rainwater would lie on horizontal surfaces, the top surface of a sill is sloped (or weathered) to spill water off the surface.-Anticapillary grooves:-When water might be driven between the frame & the window opening or between fixed & openable portions of the window frame, “anti-capillary” would be needed.-Throating Grooves:-which are made in the underside of projecting portions of the frame to prevent water from being driven beneath them.
19SECURITYAll openable window should be fitted with suitable latches or stays which prevent from being opened from outside. Where security is important, special security fittings must be installed.CLEANINGMeans of opening a window will affect the ease with which it may be cleaned. Location of window is important.
20Parts of a windowFrame-The combination of the head, jambs and sill that forms a precise opening in which a window sash fits.Glass- a framed sheet of glass within a window frame.Grilles-any bar that divides window glass into smaller panes.Also called a muntin, grid or windowpane divider.Head-The main horizontal part forming the top of the window frame.Jamb-the main vertical parts forming the sides of a window frame.Sash- a single assembly of stiles and rails made into a frame for holding glass.Sill-the main horizontal part forming the bottom of the frame of a window.