Presentation on theme: "Buildings and Structures 1"— Presentation transcript:
1Buildings and Structures 1 Building Types and Components
2AimTo provide students with information that will enable them to recognise the basic types of building design and the principal components.
3Learning Outcomes At the end of the session students will be able to: State the most commonly used construction typesIdentify types of doors, windows and roof lights commonly usedList the principal components of a staircaseList the types of roof commonly found.
4Types of buildings Solid or ‘traditional’ construction Structural steel frame constructionReinforced concrete constructionModular system constructionLiftslab construction.
5Solid construction Solid load bearing walls Set back at upper floors Commonly made of brick, concrete blocks or stoneCast iron columnsCast iron or timber beamsWarehouses, mills, factories and offices.
7Structural steel High number of design options Skeletal framework often complexLoads carried by beamsStructure is covered by claddingLarge use of glass, polycarbonate and plasticLarge shopping centres, sports centres and multi-storey offices.
8Structural steel. Floor spans between main beams Roof spans between main beamsMain beamsTie BeamSecondary beamFloor spans between main beamsStanchions
9Reinforced concrete Alternative to steel frame Columns support beams on which are laid slab flooring sectionsColumns, beams and slabs integrally cast to form a monolithic structureTwo common methods of construction.
10Reinforced concrete(1) Pre cast reinforced concrete frame Factory produced frame componentsTransported for assembly on siteSimilar techniques to steel frame.
11Reinforced concrete(2) Composite construction Utilises the advantages of modern lightweight structural steelwork‘Marriage’ between steelwork & pre cast concrete columns.
12Composite construction Concrete Spine beamSteel Spine beam.Gable columns
20Doors, windows and rooflights Types of doorHingedSwingRevolvingSlidingFoldingCantileverRoller shutter.
21Hinged doors Most commonly found type All close against a rebate on the door jambFour commonly found typesFlushPanelledLedgedMetal.
22Swing doors Pin hinges allow door to swing in any direction Door jamb not fitted with a rebateOften partially glazed using wired glass or copper glazing barsFound in restaurants, department stores and hotels.
23Revolving doorsPresent an obstruction to firefighting operations unless dealt withUsually 4 or 2 ‘wings’Designed to be collapsed downEssential they are used in conjunction with a hinged door.
24Sliding doors Solid or lattice construction Widely used in commercial buildingsCan slide on one or both sides of an opening or into a central recessLattice type usually for security or to protect an area such as a lift or lift shaft.
25Folding doors Usually lightweight construction Similar in design to hinged doorsTwo or more leaves hinged togetherWhole door opens to one side onlyOften used to separate two rooms.
26Cantilever doorsDoor is counter balanced and pivoted so it rises upwardsLies horizontal when openGenerally fits flush to the opening when closedUsually found on garages.
27Roller shutters Nearly always made of steel Small examples can be raised by handLarge examples usually operated by means of gearing and handle or chain and blockUsually found on commercial premises.
28Windows Allow natural light into a building Serve to provide ventilation to roomsGenerally two types, referred to according to the method of openingCasementSash.
29Casement windowsThe simplest form consists of a rectangular frame with the casement hung on itWhen more than one casement can be opened it is referred to as a 2,3 or 4 light casement.
31Sash windowsPivoted sash - opening part supported by pivots at each side of opening part of window or top and bottomThe term ‘SASH’ refers to the opening portion and includes the glass and the surroundPartially inside and outside of opening when open.
32Sash windows Sliding sash windows Slide vertically Double hung is the common form of this type of sash, both sashes slide vertically in the frameAnother type consists of two sashes, one or both of which can be opened horizontally.
40Confirmation Assessments will be based on this lesson and the corresponding study note Learning OutcomesThe most commonly used construction typesThe types of doors, windows and roof lights commonly usedThe principal components of a staircaseThe types of roof commonly found.