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Buildings and Structures 1

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1 Buildings and Structures 1
Building Types and Components

2 Aim To provide students with information that will enable them to recognise the basic types of building design and the principal components.

3 Learning Outcomes At the end of the session students will be able to:
State the most commonly used construction types Identify types of doors, windows and roof lights commonly used List the principal components of a staircase List the types of roof commonly found.

4 Types of buildings Solid or ‘traditional’ construction
Structural steel frame construction Reinforced concrete construction Modular system construction Liftslab construction.

5 Solid construction Solid load bearing walls Set back at upper floors
Commonly made of brick, concrete blocks or stone Cast iron columns Cast iron or timber beams Warehouses, mills, factories and offices.

6 Buildings and structures.

7 Structural steel High number of design options
Skeletal framework often complex Loads carried by beams Structure is covered by cladding Large use of glass, polycarbonate and plastic Large shopping centres, sports centres and multi-storey offices.

8 Structural steel. Floor spans between main beams
Roof spans between main beams Main beams Tie Beam Secondary beam Floor spans between main beams Stanchions

9 Reinforced concrete Alternative to steel frame
Columns support beams on which are laid slab flooring sections Columns, beams and slabs integrally cast to form a monolithic structure Two common methods of construction.

10 Reinforced concrete(1) Pre cast reinforced concrete frame
Factory produced frame components Transported for assembly on site Similar techniques to steel frame.

11 Reinforced concrete(2) Composite construction
Utilises the advantages of modern lightweight structural steelwork ‘Marriage’ between steelwork & pre cast concrete columns.

12 Composite construction
Concrete Spine beam Steel Spine beam. Gable columns

13 ‘PCR’ concrete frame.

14 Modular structures Pre fabricated components High design flexibility
Specially designed connectors Encased in concrete to provide a degree of fire and corrosion protection.

15 Modular building.

16 Typical modular connector.

17 Lift slab construction
Building framework formed by columns Hydraulic rams used to lift roof then floors into position Height can be increased by ‘splicing’ on additional sections of column.

18 Early phase of ‘Slab’ construction.

19 2nd Phase ‘Slab’ construction.

20 Doors, windows and rooflights
Types of door Hinged Swing Revolving Sliding Folding Cantilever Roller shutter.

21 Hinged doors Most commonly found type
All close against a rebate on the door jamb Four commonly found types Flush Panelled Ledged Metal.

22 Swing doors Pin hinges allow door to swing in any direction
Door jamb not fitted with a rebate Often partially glazed using wired glass or copper glazing bars Found in restaurants, department stores and hotels.

23 Revolving doors Present an obstruction to firefighting operations unless dealt with Usually 4 or 2 ‘wings’ Designed to be collapsed down Essential they are used in conjunction with a hinged door.

24 Sliding doors Solid or lattice construction
Widely used in commercial buildings Can slide on one or both sides of an opening or into a central recess Lattice type usually for security or to protect an area such as a lift or lift shaft.

25 Folding doors Usually lightweight construction
Similar in design to hinged doors Two or more leaves hinged together Whole door opens to one side only Often used to separate two rooms.

26 Cantilever doors Door is counter balanced and pivoted so it rises upwards Lies horizontal when open Generally fits flush to the opening when closed Usually found on garages.

27 Roller shutters Nearly always made of steel
Small examples can be raised by hand Large examples usually operated by means of gearing and handle or chain and block Usually found on commercial premises.

28 Windows Allow natural light into a building
Serve to provide ventilation to rooms Generally two types, referred to according to the method of opening Casement Sash.

29 Casement windows The simplest form consists of a rectangular frame with the casement hung on it When more than one casement can be opened it is referred to as a 2,3 or 4 light casement.


31 Sash windows Pivoted sash - opening part supported by pivots at each side of opening part of window or top and bottom The term ‘SASH’ refers to the opening portion and includes the glass and the surround Partially inside and outside of opening when open.

32 Sash windows Sliding sash windows Slide vertically
Double hung is the common form of this type of sash, both sashes slide vertically in the frame Another type consists of two sashes, one or both of which can be opened horizontally.



35 Stairs Common materials; Wood Stone Pre cast concrete Steel Composite.





40 Confirmation Assessments will be based on this lesson and the corresponding study note
Learning Outcomes The most commonly used construction types The types of doors, windows and roof lights commonly used The principal components of a staircase The types of roof commonly found.


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