Presentation on theme: "Buildings and Structures 1"— Presentation transcript:
1 Buildings and Structures 1 Building Types and Components
2 AimTo provide students with information that will enable them to recognise the basic types of building design and the principal components.
3 Learning Outcomes At the end of the session students will be able to: State the most commonly used construction typesIdentify types of doors, windows and roof lights commonly usedList the principal components of a staircaseList the types of roof commonly found.
4 Types of buildings Solid or ‘traditional’ construction Structural steel frame constructionReinforced concrete constructionModular system constructionLiftslab construction.
5 Solid construction Solid load bearing walls Set back at upper floors Commonly made of brick, concrete blocks or stoneCast iron columnsCast iron or timber beamsWarehouses, mills, factories and offices.
7 Structural steel High number of design options Skeletal framework often complexLoads carried by beamsStructure is covered by claddingLarge use of glass, polycarbonate and plasticLarge shopping centres, sports centres and multi-storey offices.
8 Structural steel. Floor spans between main beams Roof spans between main beamsMain beamsTie BeamSecondary beamFloor spans between main beamsStanchions
9 Reinforced concrete Alternative to steel frame Columns support beams on which are laid slab flooring sectionsColumns, beams and slabs integrally cast to form a monolithic structureTwo common methods of construction.
10 Reinforced concrete(1) Pre cast reinforced concrete frame Factory produced frame componentsTransported for assembly on siteSimilar techniques to steel frame.
11 Reinforced concrete(2) Composite construction Utilises the advantages of modern lightweight structural steelwork‘Marriage’ between steelwork & pre cast concrete columns.
12 Composite construction Concrete Spine beamSteel Spine beam.Gable columns
20 Doors, windows and rooflights Types of doorHingedSwingRevolvingSlidingFoldingCantileverRoller shutter.
21 Hinged doors Most commonly found type All close against a rebate on the door jambFour commonly found typesFlushPanelledLedgedMetal.
22 Swing doors Pin hinges allow door to swing in any direction Door jamb not fitted with a rebateOften partially glazed using wired glass or copper glazing barsFound in restaurants, department stores and hotels.
23 Revolving doorsPresent an obstruction to firefighting operations unless dealt withUsually 4 or 2 ‘wings’Designed to be collapsed downEssential they are used in conjunction with a hinged door.
24 Sliding doors Solid or lattice construction Widely used in commercial buildingsCan slide on one or both sides of an opening or into a central recessLattice type usually for security or to protect an area such as a lift or lift shaft.
25 Folding doors Usually lightweight construction Similar in design to hinged doorsTwo or more leaves hinged togetherWhole door opens to one side onlyOften used to separate two rooms.
26 Cantilever doorsDoor is counter balanced and pivoted so it rises upwardsLies horizontal when openGenerally fits flush to the opening when closedUsually found on garages.
27 Roller shutters Nearly always made of steel Small examples can be raised by handLarge examples usually operated by means of gearing and handle or chain and blockUsually found on commercial premises.
28 Windows Allow natural light into a building Serve to provide ventilation to roomsGenerally two types, referred to according to the method of openingCasementSash.
29 Casement windowsThe simplest form consists of a rectangular frame with the casement hung on itWhen more than one casement can be opened it is referred to as a 2,3 or 4 light casement.
31 Sash windowsPivoted sash - opening part supported by pivots at each side of opening part of window or top and bottomThe term ‘SASH’ refers to the opening portion and includes the glass and the surroundPartially inside and outside of opening when open.
32 Sash windows Sliding sash windows Slide vertically Double hung is the common form of this type of sash, both sashes slide vertically in the frameAnother type consists of two sashes, one or both of which can be opened horizontally.
40 Confirmation Assessments will be based on this lesson and the corresponding study note Learning OutcomesThe most commonly used construction typesThe types of doors, windows and roof lights commonly usedThe principal components of a staircaseThe types of roof commonly found.