Presentation on theme: "Roofs Subtitle Roofs are one of a buildings primary elements and play a major part in giving a building its character. There are several different types."— Presentation transcript:
Roofs Subtitle Roofs are one of a buildings primary elements and play a major part in giving a building its character. There are several different types of roof in this one building.
A roof must have the following qualities: A roof must be weather resistant to rain, snow, wind and sun. The durability of a roof should be equal to or in excess of those materials used in the remainder of the building. A roof should have good thermal insulation properties. A roof should require a minimum of maintenance. A roof should be constructed in such a way as to retain structural stability when dead and imposed loads are applied to it ( dead loads is the weight of materials used to make the roof, imposed loads are loads created by wind, snow, etc.
Roof Elements When designing a roof the following points should be considered in relation to its final appearance. Pitch The steeper the pitch the greater the roof area visible. This will result in a larger roof space, you can also use smaller cladding units such as plain tiles and slates. Pitched roofs are the most suitable in countries where there is a high rain fall. Coverings Materials used for roof coverings should harmonise with the local surroundings. These materials should be fit for purpose in their ability to keep out the elements, thermal insulation, durability and appearance. Concrete interlocking roof tiles
Roofs Verge Ridge Valley Rafter Hipped End Jack Rafters Common Rafters Gable End Lean-to Roof Flat Roof Hip Eaves
Terminology Wall plate Usually 100 x 50 mm softwood timbers are fixed to the top of load bearing walls to distribute loads and provide fixings for roof timbers. Ceiling joist These are timbers which provide a support for fixing ceiling finishes and act as a collar to prevent rafters spreading. Common rafters These are inclined timbers fixed between wall plate and ridge which transmit live and dead loads to wall plate. Ridge The ridge is a horizontal board set on edge to which the rafters are attached (not required on trussed rafters).
Terminology Hip Rafter A hip rafter is a rafter running from the wall plate to the ridge which forms the external angle of the sloping side of a roof. Purlin This is a horizontal roof member supporting the rafters and usually at right angles to these. This enables small section timbers to be used for the rafters. Hangers These are timbers hanging from the purlins to the ceiling joist to give additional support to binders. Fascia A board fixed vertically to rafter ends, which provide an additional fixing for gutters.
Terminology Soffit A horizontal board fixed to the underside of the rafter outside the building. Bargeboard Verge or gable board. Eaves The lower part of the roof, which usually includes the end of the rafter, ceiling joist, soffit, fascia and gutter. Dormer A vertical window coming through a sloping roof. Valley This is the name for the intersection between two sloping surfaces, forming an internal angle ( the opposite to a hip).
Pitched roof Roof with a gable end If the roof space is or may be intended to be used in the future, the structure should be designed accordingly.
Pitched roof with dormer windows A pitched roof with dormer windows. When a steep pitched roof is used in domestic construction dormer windows can be used to create additional head room in the roof space. This allows the roof space to be utilised for habitable rooms. Timber to support the dormer window Common Rafter Lay board
Roof parts Ridge Dormer windowBarge board Eaves detail Door Down pipe Gutter chimney
Traditional cut Roof
Eaves detail pitched roof
Traditional cut roof structure A traditional cut roof was the first development to create pitched roofs as we know them today. This type of roof structure is still widely used for individual dwellings or for roofs of a complicated shape. The timbers rafters are cut individually and nailed into position. A purlin is often placed half way up the length of the rafter to help support the roof and allow smaller sections of timber to be used. Common rafters Pad-stone built into the wall to help distribute the load of the roof over a larger section of wall. Steel purlin
Trussed rafters A high percentage of roofs designed now are constructed using prefabricated trussed rafters. They have been developed since the mid 1960s. The principal disadvantage is that the roof space is occupied by a large number of timber sections. The following are the main reasons for developing truss rafters: 1.Smaller and light sections of timber can be used. 2. Speed of erection. 3. Semi-skilled labour can be used. 4. Eliminates the need for purlins and ridge boards. 5. Loadbearing partitions are eliminated, allowing greater freedom of internal room arrangements.
Standard trussed rafter
Roof coverings Profiled galvanized metal sheet Roof tiles A wide variety of different types of roof coverings are available including: natural slates man made slates concrete tiles Profiled metal sheet