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The Nation Breaking Apart,

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Presentation on theme: "The Nation Breaking Apart,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nation Breaking Apart,
1846–1861 Conflict pulls apart the North and South and attempts are made to resolve the issues dividing the country. Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas debating the issue of slavery in the 1858 Senate campaign in Illinois. NEXT

2 The Nation Breaking Apart,
1846–1861 SECTION 1 Growing Tensions Between North and South SECTION 2 The Crisis Deepens SECTION 3 Slavery Dominates Politics SECTION 4 Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession NEXT

3 Growing Tensions Between North and South
Section 1 Growing Tensions Between North and South Disagreements between the North and the South, especially over the issue of slavery, led to political conflict. NEXT

4 Growing Tensions Between North and South
1 SECTION Growing Tensions Between North and South North and South Take Different Paths • In the North, industrial growth leads to rapid growth of cities • Immigrants are large part of northern population • Many immigrants, Easterners move to Northwest Territory • South controlled by a few wealthy planters Image • Make profit from slave labor, trade; South develops little industry NEXT

5 Antislavery and Racism
1 SECTION Antislavery and Racism • Many Northerners are against slavery • Includes abolitionists, free workers who fear loss of jobs to slaves • Most Northerners refuse to associate with African Americans • Many Southerners determined to defend slavery • Claim white people superior, slaves are provided with food, clothes NEXT

6 1 SECTION The Wilmot Proviso • Wilmot Proviso—outlaws slavery in area U.S. gets from war with Mexico • U.S. Constitution protects property rights • Southerners view slaves as property, Wilmot Proviso unconstitutional • Southerners prevent Wilmot Proviso from passing the Senate • Proviso leads to creation of political party called Free-Soil Party: - wants to stop the expansion of slavery NEXT

7 Controversy over Territories
1 SECTION Controversy over Territories • President Zachary Taylor proposes California apply for statehood • Adding a free state would tip balance of power in favor of the North • South: divide California into 2 sections: free north, slave south • President Taylor proposes a strategy for California (1849) • Apply for statehood without going through territory stage • California applies to be admitted as a free state (1850) NEXT

8 1 SECTION The Compromise of 1850 • Senator Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850 Chart • Admit California as a free state, abolish slavery in Washington D.C. • No laws would abolish slavery in territories won from Mexico • Pass stronger laws to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves • Senator Stephen A. Douglas succeeds in winning passage of plan • Compromise of 1850 becomes law, sectional tensions continue to rise NEXT

9 The Crisis Deepens Section 2
Turmoil over slavery led to acts of violence. NEXT

10 The Crisis Deepens The Fugitive Slave Act 2
SECTION The Crisis Deepens The Fugitive Slave Act • Fugitive Slave Act helps slaveholders recapture runaway slaves • Fugitives can be held without arrest warrant, no right to jury trial Image • Southerners feel the act justified, slaves considered property • Northerners resent the act because it requires them to support slavery • Face moral choice, support law, slavery or oppose law, slavery NEXT

11 2 SECTION Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) • Expresses moral issues about slavery • Stowe’s book is popular in North • Southerners feel book falsely criticizes the South, slavery NEXT

12 The Kansas-Nebraska Act
2 SECTION The Kansas-Nebraska Act • Stephen A. Douglas drafts bill for governing the Nebraska Territory • Divides territory into two territories: Nebraska, Kansas • Slavery issue to be decided by residents’ vote—popular sovereignty • Allows vote for slavery in area where Missouri Compromise banned it • South supports bill, becomes law known as Kansas-Nebraska Act Chart NEXT

13 2 SECTION “Bleeding Kansas” • Proslavery, antislavery settlers rush into Kansas Territory • Want vote for territorial legislation in the election of March, 1855 • At time of election, more proslavery than anti-slavery settlers • 5,000 proslavery Missourians vote in election illegally • Kansas legislature packed with proslavery representatives Continued . . . NEXT

14 • Proslavery mob attacks Lawrence, Kansas, destroys:
2 SECTION Continued “Bleeding Kansas” • Antislavery settlers boycott official government, form own government • Proslavery mob attacks Lawrence, Kansas, destroys: - antislavery offices - house of antislavery governor Image • Attack known as Sack of Lawrence • Abolitionist John Brown retaliates by murdering 5 proslavery people • Attack known as Pottawatomie Massacre • Civil war breaks out in Kansas, territory called “Bleeding Kansas” NEXT

15 2 SECTION Violence in Congress • Senator Charles Sumner’s speech attacks proslavery forces in Kansas • Speech makes fun of A. P. Butler, senator from South Carolina • A relative of Butler, Preston Brooks, attacks Sumner in the Senate Image • Southerners cheer Brooks’s defense of the South • Northerners shocked at the violence in the Senate NEXT

16 Slavery Dominates Politics
Section 3 Slavery Dominates Politics Disagreements over slavery lead to the formation of the Republican Party and heightened sectional tensions. NEXT

17 Slavery Dominates Politics
3 SECTION Slavery Dominates Politics The Republican Party Forms • Whig party splits over slavery, Northern Whigs form Republican Party • Republicans join with other opponents of slavery, gain strength in North • Nominate John C. Frémont as their presidential candidate (1856) Image NEXT

18 3 SECTION The Election of 1856 • Democrats nominate James Buchanan to run for the U.S. presidency • Buchanan wants to maintain the Union, appeals to Southerners • American, or Know-Nothing Party, nominates Millard Fillmore • In North, presidential race is Buchanan against Frémont • In South, race is Buchanan against Fillmore • Buchanan wins election, but Frémont wins 11 Northern states NEXT

19 The Case of Dred Scott 3 • Dred Scott is a slave in Missouri
SECTION The Case of Dred Scott • Dred Scott is a slave in Missouri Image • Owner takes Scott to territory where slavery is illegal • Owner, Scott return to Missouri, owner dies, Scott sues for freedom • Argues he is a free man, he lived in region where slavery is illegal • His case, Dred Scott v. Sandford, reaches Supreme Court (1856) Continued . . . NEXT

20 - Scott is not a U.S. citizen, cannot sue in U.S. courts
3 SECTION Continued The Case of Dred Scott • Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, Supreme Court rule against Scott stating: - Scott is not a U.S. citizen, cannot sue in U.S. courts - is bound by Missouri’s slave code because he lived in Missouri • Taney argues that Congress cannot ban slavery in the territories • Southerners cheer Court’s decision, Northerners are outraged NEXT

21 Lincoln and Douglas Debate
3 SECTION Lincoln and Douglas Debate • Republicans charge Democrats want to legalize slavery in all of U.S. • Use charge, attack Stephen A. Douglas, sponsor of Kansas-Nebraska Act • Illinois Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln for U.S. Senate (1858) Image Continued . . . NEXT

22 • Lincoln challenges Douglas for U.S. Senate, hold formal debates
3 SECTION Continued Lincoln and Douglas Debate • Lincoln challenges Douglas for U.S. Senate, hold formal debates Image • Lincoln argues U.S. government should prevent expansion of slavery • Douglas argues popular sovereignty should decide slavery issue • Douglas wins reelection, Lincoln becomes a national figure NEXT

23 John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry
3 SECTION John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry • John Brown, followers capture U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia Image • Brown sends out word to rally, arm local slaves • No slaves join fight, U.S. Marines capture Brown, 6 others • Brown is tried for murder, treason and is hung • Many Northerners, abolitionists salute Brown as a hero • Southerners outraged by Northern reactions to Brown’s death NEXT

24 Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession
Section 4 Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession The election of Lincoln leads the Southern states to secede from the Union. NEXT

25 Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession
4 SECTION Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession Political Parties Splinter • Northern, Southern Democrats disagree about slavery in party’s platform • Platform—statement of beliefs • Southern Democrats want platform to defend slavery • Northern Democrats want platform to support popular sovereignty • Northerners win platform, 50 Southerners walk out of convention Continued . . . NEXT

26 • Northern democrats nominate Stephen A. Douglas for president
4 SECTION Continued Political Parties Splinter • Northern democrats nominate Stephen A. Douglas for president • Southern democrats nominate John Breckinridge • Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln • Constitutional Union Party nominates John Bell NEXT

27 4 SECTION The Election of 1860 • 1860 election turns into 2 races: one in the North, other in the South • Abraham Lincoln defeats Stephen A. Douglas in the North • John Breckinridge defeats John Bell in the South • Lincoln receives the most electoral, popular votes, wins election Map • Southerners view Republican victory as a threat to their way of life NEXT

28 Southern States Secede
4 SECTION Southern States Secede • South Carolina secedes—withdraws from the Union (1860) • 6 more Southern states soon join South Carolina in secession • Form the Confederate States of America (1861) • Name Jefferson Davis president of the Confederacy Image • Draft Confederate Constitution which: - supports states’ rights - protects slavery in Confederacy, territories it might acquire NEXT

29 The Union Responds to Secession
4 SECTION The Union Responds to Secession • Northerners consider secession of Southern states unconstitutional • President James Buchanan believes states do not have right to secede • South claims North will use their majority to abolish slavery • North claims South does not want to live by the rules of democracy NEXT

30 Efforts to Compromise Fail
4 SECTION Efforts to Compromise Fail • Senator John J. Crittenden develops compromise, the Crittenden Plan • Plan does not pass; Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated (March 4, 1861) Image • Lincoln is against secession but does not want to invade the South • Union forts in South, including Fort Sumter, need to be resupplied NEXT

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