Presentation on theme: "Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas debating the issue of slavery in the 1858 Senate campaign in Illinois. NEXT The Nation Breaking Apart, 1846–1861."— Presentation transcript:
Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas debating the issue of slavery in the 1858 Senate campaign in Illinois. NEXT The Nation Breaking Apart, 1846–1861 Conflict pulls apart the North and South and attempts are made to resolve the issues dividing the country.
NEXT SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 Growing Tensions Between North and South The Crisis Deepens Slavery Dominates Politics Lincolns Election and Southern Secession The Nation Breaking Apart, 1846–1861
NEXT Section 1 Growing Tensions Between North and South Disagreements between the North and the South, especially over the issue of slavery, led to political conflict.
North and South Take Different Paths NEXT Growing Tensions Between North and South In the North, industrial growth leads to rapid growth of cities 1 SECTION Many immigrants, Easterners move to Northwest Territory Immigrants are large part of northern population South controlled by a few wealthy planters Make profit from slave labor, trade; South develops little industry Image
Antislavery and Racism NEXT 1 SECTION Many Northerners are against slavery Most Northerners refuse to associate with African Americans Includes abolitionists, free workers who fear loss of jobs to slaves Claim white people superior, slaves are provided with food, clothes Many Southerners determined to defend slavery
The Wilmot Proviso NEXT 1 SECTION Wilmot Provisooutlaws slavery in area U.S. gets from war with Mexico Southerners prevent Wilmot Proviso from passing the Senate Southerners view slaves as property, Wilmot Proviso unconstitutional U.S. Constitution protects property rights Proviso leads to creation of political party called Free-Soil Party: -wants to stop the expansion of slavery
Controversy over Territories NEXT 1 SECTION President Zachary Taylor proposes California apply for statehood President Taylor proposes a strategy for California (1849) South: divide California into 2 sections: free north, slave south Adding a free state would tip balance of power in favor of the North Apply for statehood without going through territory stage California applies to be admitted as a free state (1850)
The Compromise of 1850 NEXT 1 SECTION Senator Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850 Pass stronger laws to help slaveholders recapture runaway slaves No laws would abolish slavery in territories won from Mexico Admit California as a free state, abolish slavery in Washington D.C. Senator Stephen A. Douglas succeeds in winning passage of plan Compromise of 1850 becomes law, sectional tensions continue to rise Chart
NEXT Section 2 The Crisis Deepens Turmoil over slavery led to acts of violence.
The Fugitive Slave Act NEXT 2 SECTION Fugitive Slave Act helps slaveholders recapture runaway slaves Fugitives can be held without arrest warrant, no right to jury trial The Crisis Deepens Southerners feel the act justified, slaves considered property Northerners resent the act because it requires them to support slavery Face moral choice, support law, slavery or oppose law, slavery Image
Uncle Toms Cabin NEXT 2 SECTION Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes book, Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) Southerners feel book falsely criticizes the South, slavery Stowes book is popular in North Expresses moral issues about slavery
The Kansas-Nebraska Act NEXT 2 SECTION Stephen A. Douglas drafts bill for governing the Nebraska Territory Slavery issue to be decided by residents votepopular sovereignty Divides territory into two territories: Nebraska, Kansas Allows vote for slavery in area where Missouri Compromise banned it South supports bill, becomes law known as Kansas-Nebraska Act Chart
Bleeding Kansas NEXT 2 SECTION Proslavery, antislavery settlers rush into Kansas Territory At time of election, more proslavery than anti- slavery settlers Want vote for territorial legislation in the election of March, ,000 proslavery Missourians vote in election illegally Kansas legislature packed with proslavery representatives Continued...
NEXT 2 SECTION Antislavery settlers boycott official government, form own government Abolitionist John Brown retaliates by murdering 5 proslavery people Attack known as Sack of Lawrence Proslavery mob attacks Lawrence, Kansas, destroys: -antislavery offices -house of antislavery governor Continued Bleeding Kansas Civil war breaks out in Kansas, territory called Bleeding Kansas Attack known as Pottawatomie Massacre Image
Violence in Congress NEXT 2 SECTION Senator Charles Sumners speech attacks proslavery forces in Kansas A relative of Butler, Preston Brooks, attacks Sumner in the Senate Speech makes fun of A. P. Butler, senator from South Carolina Southerners cheer Brookss defense of the South Northerners shocked at the violence in the Senate Image
NEXT Section 3 Slavery Dominates Politics Disagreements over slavery lead to the formation of the Republican Party and heightened sectional tensions.
The Republican Party Forms NEXT 3 SECTION Whig party splits over slavery, Northern Whigs form Republican Party Slavery Dominates Politics Republicans join with other opponents of slavery, gain strength in North Nominate John C. Frémont as their presidential candidate (1856) Image
The Election of 1856 NEXT 3 SECTION Democrats nominate James Buchanan to run for the U.S. presidency In North, presidential race is Buchanan against Frémont American, or Know-Nothing Party, nominates Millard Fillmore Buchanan wants to maintain the Union, appeals to Southerners In South, race is Buchanan against Fillmore Buchanan wins election, but Frémont wins 11 Northern states
The Case of Dred Scott NEXT 3 SECTION Dred Scott is a slave in Missouri Argues he is a free man, he lived in region where slavery is illegal Owner, Scott return to Missouri, owner dies, Scott sues for freedom Owner takes Scott to territory where slavery is illegal His case, Dred Scott v. Sandford, reaches Supreme Court (1856) Image Continued...
NEXT 3 SECTION Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, Supreme Court rule against Scott stating: -Scott is not a U.S. citizen, cannot sue in U.S. courts -is bound by Missouris slave code because he lived in Missouri Southerners cheer Courts decision, Northerners are outraged Taney argues that Congress cannot ban slavery in the territories Continued The Case of Dred Scott
Lincoln and Douglas Debate NEXT 3 SECTION Republicans charge Democrats want to legalize slavery in all of U.S. Use charge, attack Stephen A. Douglas, sponsor of Kansas-Nebraska Act Illinois Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln for U.S. Senate (1858) Image Continued...
NEXT 3 SECTION Lincoln challenges Douglas for U.S. Senate, hold formal debates Douglas argues popular sovereignty should decide slavery issue Lincoln argues U.S. government should prevent expansion of slavery Continued Lincoln and Douglas Debate Douglas wins reelection, Lincoln becomes a national figure Image
John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry NEXT 3 SECTION John Brown, followers capture U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia Brown sends out word to rally, arm local slaves Brown is tried for murder, treason and is hung No slaves join fight, U.S. Marines capture Brown, 6 others Southerners outraged by Northern reactions to Browns death Many Northerners, abolitionists salute Brown as a hero Image
NEXT Section 4 Lincolns Election and Southern Secession The election of Lincoln leads the Southern states to secede from the Union.
Political Parties Splinter NEXT 4 SECTION Northern, Southern Democrats disagree about slavery in partys platform Platformstatement of beliefs Lincolns Election and Southern Secession Southern Democrats want platform to defend slavery Northern Democrats want platform to support popular sovereignty Northerners win platform, 50 Southerners walk out of convention Continued...
NEXT 4 SECTION Northern democrats nominate Stephen A. Douglas for president Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln Southern democrats nominate John Breckinridge Constitutional Union Party nominates John Bell Continued Political Parties Splinter
The Election of 1860 NEXT 4 SECTION 1860 election turns into 2 races: one in the North, other in the South Lincoln receives the most electoral, popular votes, wins election John Breckinridge defeats John Bell in the South Abraham Lincoln defeats Stephen A. Douglas in the North Southerners view Republican victory as a threat to their way of life Map
Southern States Secede NEXT 4 SECTION South Carolina secedeswithdraws from the Union (1860) Name Jefferson Davis president of the Confederacy Form the Confederate States of America (1861) 6 more Southern states soon join South Carolina in secession Draft Confederate Constitution which: -supports states rights -protects slavery in Confederacy, territories it might acquire Image
The Union Responds to Secession NEXT 4 SECTION Northerners consider secession of Southern states unconstitutional North claims South does not want to live by the rules of democracy South claims North will use their majority to abolish slavery President James Buchanan believes states do not have right to secede
Efforts to Compromise Fail NEXT 4 SECTION Senator John J. Crittenden develops compromise, the Crittenden Plan Union forts in South, including Fort Sumter, need to be resupplied Lincoln is against secession but does not want to invade the South Plan does not pass; Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated (March 4, 1861) Image
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