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The Crisis Deepens: Free and Slave States and Territories

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1 The Crisis Deepens: Free and Slave States and Territories
US History, 5/22-24 Chapter 15.2

2 Objective SWBAT explain how the Fugitive Slave Act inspired different opinions on slavery in America

3 What was the Fugitive Slave Act?
Stop and think: If you were a commissionerwhat would you do and why? 1850 law that helped slaveholders recapture runaway slaves Fugitive slaves could be held without an arrest warrant and no right to a jury trial Instead, a federal commissioner ruled on each case. Commissioners received $5 for releasing the defendant and $10 for turning the defendant over to the slaveholders

4 Reactions to the Fugitive Slave Act
Southerners Felt the act was justified because they considered slaves to be property Went up north to recapture slaves Often captured free African Americans Northerners Resented the act because they had to help recapture slaves Were fined for not helping recapture slaves and jailed for helping fugitives escape

5 THINK ABOUT IT! Northerners faced a moral decision: Should they obey the law and support slavery or not support slavery and not obey the law? Which do you think is better: Should they obey the law and support slavery? OR should they not support slavery and disobey the law? Take two minutes to write down your opinion Discuss with a neighbor for three minutes and be prepared to share with the class!

6 Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852
Increased the popularity of drama and abolitionism Uncle Tom = a respected older slave Plot = Tom’s life under 3 owners. Two = kind, one = cruel Novel included dramatic scenes, including the escape of Eliza (slave) and her baby across the Ohio River

7 Reactions to Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Gained wild popularity in the North Falsely criticized the South and slavery Today, we will have a special guest joining us in class. Please give a warm welcome to…HARRIET BEECHER STOWE!!

8 Kansas Nebraska Act Bill drafted by Senator Stephen A. Douglas (IL) to organize territorial governments for the Nebraska territory. He proposed to divide the bill into two territories: Nebraska and Kansas In order to gain Southern support for the bill, he suggested popular sovereignty as a way to decide whether or not to allow slavery in each of the territories Popular sovereignty: system where residents vote to decide on an issue If the bill passed, the Missouri Compromise would no longer be legal because people could vote for slavery in territories where the MC had banned it

9 To Pass or not to pass the KS-NE Act?
Southerners were thrilled with the repeal of the MC and supported the bill Despite anger from opponents of slavery (mainly Northerners), it passed and became known as the Kansas-Nebraska Act Most did not realize that this act would result in Kansas engaging in a conflict over slavery

10 Bleeding Kansas Both pro and anti slavery settlers rushed into the KS territory to vote for territorial legislature Election took place in March 1855 Proslavery settlers > Antislavery settlers Proslavery forces did not want to risk losing the election, so 5000 Missourians voted in the election illegally so the KS legislature had a large number of proslavery representatives Antislavery settlers boycotted the official government to form their own one

11 THINK ABOUT IT! What factors do you think accounted for the large number of proslavery settlers in KS? Take three minutes to write a response in your notes, which you do NOT need to turn in Be prepared to share with the class

12 Violence in Kansas Sack of Lawrence: A proslavery mob destroyed offices and the house of the antislavery government governor in Lawrence, KS John Brown: An extreme abolitionist who often used violence as a way to fight against slavery. Pottawatomie Massacre: Brown and seven other men murdered five people within the cabins of his proslavery neighbors. In late May of 1856, Senator Charles Summer (MA) made a speech attacking proslavery

13 Violence in Congress In late May of 1856, Senator Charles Sumner (MA) made a speech attacking proslavery forces His speech had many insults and even made fun of proslavery senator A. P. Butler (SC) One of Butler’s relatives, Preston Brooks, defended Butler and the South by attacking Sumner Brooks hit Sumner with his cane at least 30 times Southerners cheered Brooks' defense but Northerners were shocked. The incident became known as “Bleeding Sumner”

14 THINK ABOUT IT! Using your knowledge of “Bleeding Kansas” and “Bleeding Sumner,” discuss for five minutes with a neighbor if you think the following acts of violence are morally wrong or could be considered self-defense Proslavery mob attacking offices and home of the antislavery government (Sack of Lawrence) John Brown and his men murdering proslavery neighbors “Bleeding Sumner”

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