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Reinforcement Approach to Work Motivation. PRINCIPLE WORK BEHAVIOR IS A FUNCTION OF ITS CONTINGENT CONSEQUENCES.

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Presentation on theme: "Reinforcement Approach to Work Motivation. PRINCIPLE WORK BEHAVIOR IS A FUNCTION OF ITS CONTINGENT CONSEQUENCES."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reinforcement Approach to Work Motivation

2 PRINCIPLE WORK BEHAVIOR IS A FUNCTION OF ITS CONTINGENT CONSEQUENCES

3 Main Idea: A – B - C A B C A cues B is determined by C Antecedents BehaviorConsequence

4 Categories of C & Law of Effect EVERY BEHAVIOR FOLLOWED BY POSITIVE CONSEQUENCES WILL TEND TO BE REPEATED EVERY BEHAVIOR FOLLOWED BY NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES WILL TEND TO DECREASE IN FREQUENCY EVERY BEHAVIOR FOLLOWED BY NO CONSEQUENCES WILL TEND TO FIRST INCREASE AND THEN DECREASE IN FREQUENCY

5 Types of Reinforcement PositiveReinforcementNegativeReinforcement ExtinctionPunishment + -

6 Positive Reinforcement What is it? What is it? THE APPLICATION OF A POSITIVE REINFORCER UPON A DESIRED BEHAVIOR THE APPLICATION OF A POSITIVE REINFORCER UPON A DESIRED BEHAVIOR What is a Positive Reinforcer? What is a Positive Reinforcer? ANYTHING THAT INCREASES THE FRREQUENCY OF A DESIRED BEHAVIOR ANYTHING THAT INCREASES THE FRREQUENCY OF A DESIRED BEHAVIOR

7 Positive Reinforcement: Application REINFORCER VS. REWARD REINFORCER VS. REWARD CONTINGENCY CONTINGENCY IMMEDIACY IMMEDIACY SIZE OF THE REINFORCER (RELATIVE) SIZE OF THE REINFORCER (RELATIVE) REINFORCER DEPRIVATION (RELATIVE) REINFORCER DEPRIVATION (RELATIVE)

8 Negative Reinforcement DESIRED PERFORMANCE CAN PREVENT AN ONSET OF A NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE (Avoidance Learning) DESIRED PERFORMANCE CAN PREVENT AN ONSET OF A NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE (Avoidance Learning) DESIRED PERFORMANCE CAN TERMINATE AN ALREADY PRESENT NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE (Escape Learning) DESIRED PERFORMANCE CAN TERMINATE AN ALREADY PRESENT NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE (Escape Learning) APPLICATION ISSUES APPLICATION ISSUES Perception of Blackmail Perception of Blackmail Positive Reinforcement Works Better Positive Reinforcement Works Better

9 Extinction CRITICAL APPLICATION ISSUES Behavior Increases First Subsequent Positive Reinforcement is a Must Avoid Unintended Extinction of Desired Behaviors AN UNDESIRED BEHAVIOR IS FOLLOWED BY NO CONSEQUENCES, WHICH IS THEN FOLLOWED BY POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

10 Punishment - By Application CRITICAL APPLICATION ISSUES Emotional Side Effects Inner Cause and Suppression of Behavior AN IMPOSITION OF AVERSIVE CONSEQUENCES UPON UNDESIRED BEHAVIORS

11 Punishment - by Removal CRITICAL APPLICATION ISSUES Discourages Reporting of Potential Problems Performance Feedback is Much Better Alternative May not be Immediately Obvious DESIRED CONSEQUENCE THAT IS ALREADY PRESENT IS REMOVED FOLLOWING UNDESIRED BEHAVIOR

12 Schedules of Reinforcement Intermittent Intermittent Performance Improvement is More Permanent When We Reinforce Desired Behaviors Only Part of the Time Performance Improvement is More Permanent When We Reinforce Desired Behaviors Only Part of the Time

13 Intermittent Schedules FixedVariable Interval Ratio Friday Pay Check Promotions Quota Gambling

14 Take-Home Messages GUARANTEED TO FAIL Reinforcing A while hoping for B Random Rewarding Rewards for success are small and uncertain while punishment for failure is fatal and sure Extinction of desired behaviors LIKELY TO SUCCEED Hoping for A and reinforcing A Systematic reinforcement Rewards for success are meaningful and certain Reinforcement of desired behaviors


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