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Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to “show off” their learning Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to “show off” their learning Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students aren’t passive receptors Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students aren’t passive receptors Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between “subjects” Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A “news broadcast” approach to learning Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between “subjects” Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A “news broadcast” approach to learning

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3 “C1.7 Our Changing Planet” Mr Powell 2012

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7 Index Overview.... The Earth and its atmosphere provide everything we need. The Earth has a layered structure. The surface of the Earth and its atmosphere have changed since the Earth was formed and are still changing. The atmosphere has been much the same for the last 200 million years and provides the conditions needed for life on Earth. Recently human activities have resulted in further changes in the atmosphere. There is more than one theory about how life was formed. recognise that the Earth’s crust, the atmosphere and the oceans are the only source of minerals and other resources that humans need. explain why Wegener’s theory of crustal movement (continental drift) was not generally accepted for many years explain why scientists cannot accurately predict when earthquakes and volcanic eruptions will occur explain and evaluate theories of the changes that have occurred and are occurring in the Earth’s atmosphere explain and evaluate the effects of human activities on the atmosphere describe why we do not know how life was first formed. (HT Only)

8 Mr Powell 2012 Index Where does it all come from? ProductRaw material coppersand cooking oilsunflower seeds glassclay denimcopper ore brickwheat plants plasticcrude oil flourcotton plants

9 Mr Powell 2012 Index C7.1 Structure of the Earth C1.7.1 The Earth’s Crust a) The Earth consists of a core, mantle and crust, and is surrounded by the atmosphere. (Limited to the names of the three major parts, and an awareness of the relative sizes of these features). b) The Earth’s crust and the upper part of the mantle are cracked into a number of large pieces (tectonic plates). (Knowledge of the names, shapes or locations of specific plates is not required.) C1.7.1 The Earth’s Crust a) The Earth consists of a core, mantle and crust, and is surrounded by the atmosphere. (Limited to the names of the three major parts, and an awareness of the relative sizes of these features). b) The Earth’s crust and the upper part of the mantle are cracked into a number of large pieces (tectonic plates). (Knowledge of the names, shapes or locations of specific plates is not required.)

10 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) Structural Features... TASK: 1.In the centre of a page copy out the diagram as neatly as possible leaving space for extra labels (Low Demand) 2.Add more information from the textbook p96/97 using the table and text. (Standard Demand) 3.Explain in a paragraph how we have answered questions about the structure of the Earth, density, type of materials. (Higher Demand) Extras.... Answer Q1 (Low Demand) Copy out the key points (Low Demand)

11 Mr Powell 2012 Index Simple Earthquake Diagram....

12 Mr Powell 2012 Index b) Tectonic Plates p98/99 TASK: 1.Using the information on page 98 construct a diagram to show the idea the crust is made up of individual plates. Make sure you label it clearly (Low Demand) 2.Write a short glossary of terms to explain the idea of; tectonic plates, convection currents, boundaries. (Standard Demand) 3.Explain in a paragraph what Wegener's theory was. (Higher Demand) p99

13 Mr Powell 2012 Index Chemistry C1 7.1Structure of the Earth Answers to in-text questions a crust b mantle Summary answers 1 core, mantle, crust, atmosphere, thin, solid, slowly 2 It can flow but only very slowly. 3 Because all the raw materials we need come from the crust, oceans and atmosphere and many of them, such as mineral deposits, are non- renewable – once we have used them up they will not be replaced.

14 Mr Powell 2012 Index C7.2 The Restless Earth C1.7.1 The Earth’s Crust c) Convection currents within the Earth’s mantle driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes cause the plates to move at relative speeds of a few centimetres per year. (Candidates should know that the mantle is mostly solid, but that it is able to move slowly.) d) The movements can be sudden and disastrous. Earthquakes and / or volcanic eruptions occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates. (to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions with the mechanism not required). C1.7.1 The Earth’s Crust c) Convection currents within the Earth’s mantle driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes cause the plates to move at relative speeds of a few centimetres per year. (Candidates should know that the mantle is mostly solid, but that it is able to move slowly.) d) The movements can be sudden and disastrous. Earthquakes and / or volcanic eruptions occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates. (to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions with the mechanism not required).

15 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) Convection currents within the Earth’s mantle driven by heat released by natural radioactive processes cause the plates to move at relative speeds of a few centimetres per year. (Candidates should know that the mantle is mostly solid, but that it is able to move slowly.) TASK: Draw a diagram of this process and write a paragraph to explain what happens (Low-High Demand)

16 Mr Powell 2012 Index d) The movements can be sudden and disastrous. Earthquakes and / or volcanic eruptions occur at the boundaries between tectonic plates. (to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions with the mechanism not required). TASK: Draw your own diagram of each process and write a paragraph to explain what happens (Low-High Demand)

17 Mr Powell 2012 Index Chemistry C1 7.2The restless Earth Answers to in-text questions a The similar shapes of their coastlines, similar rock types, similar fossils. b Tectonic plates suddenly slipping past one another after stress builds up at their boundaries. These sudden movements cause earthquakes. Summary answers 1 tectonic, convection, mantle, volcanoes (earthquakes), earthquakes (volcanoes) 2 a Convection currents, caused by energy from natural radioactive processes, form in the mantle beneath the tectonic plates. b Although we know where plate boundaries lie, we cannot tell exactly when and where the forces building up will cause the sudden movement that produces an earthquake or when the magma building up in a volcano will cause an explosive eruption. 3 Letter. [Mark based on ideas from description of Wegener’s ideas in the spread.]

18 Mr Powell 2012 Index C7.3 The Earth’s Atmosphere in the Past b) During the first billion years of the Earth’s existence there was intense volcanic activity. This activity released the gases that formed the early atmosphere and water vapour that condensed to form the oceans. c) There are several theories about how the atmosphere was formed. One theory suggests that during this period the Earth’s atmosphere was mainly carbon dioxide and there would have been little or no oxygen gas (like the atmospheres of Mars and Venus today). There may also have been water vapour and small proportions of methane and ammonia. f) Plants and algae produced the oxygen that is now in the atmosphere. (Candidates should be aware that plants and algae produce oxygen by a process called photosynthesis and that this process uses carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the process of photosynthesis is not required.) b) During the first billion years of the Earth’s existence there was intense volcanic activity. This activity released the gases that formed the early atmosphere and water vapour that condensed to form the oceans. c) There are several theories about how the atmosphere was formed. One theory suggests that during this period the Earth’s atmosphere was mainly carbon dioxide and there would have been little or no oxygen gas (like the atmospheres of Mars and Venus today). There may also have been water vapour and small proportions of methane and ammonia. f) Plants and algae produced the oxygen that is now in the atmosphere. (Candidates should be aware that plants and algae produce oxygen by a process called photosynthesis and that this process uses carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Knowledge of the process of photosynthesis is not required.) C1.7.2 The Earth’s atmosphere

19 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) Earth’s atmosphere (page 100) a) For 200 million years, the proportions of different gases in the atmosphere have been much the same as they are today: about four-fifths (80%) nitrogen about one-fifth (20%) oxygen small proportions of various other gases, including carbon dioxide, water vapour and noble gases. TASK: Draw your own diagram which is then explained to show the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere. happens (Low-Medium Demand)

20 Mr Powell 2012 Index b) Volcanic Activities (page 100) b) During the first billion years of the Earth’s existence there was intense volcanic activity. This activity released the gases that formed the early atmosphere and water vapour that condensed to form the oceans. TASK: Explain to the person next to you how a volcanic eruption could make an atmosphere and oceans. (Low Demand) Now write out the steps you explained in a flow chart. (Medium Demand)

21 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) Theories on Formation of the atmosphere (page ) c) There are several theories about how the atmosphere was formed. One theory suggests that during this period the Earth’s atmosphere was mainly carbon dioxide and there would have been little or no oxygen gas (like the atmospheres of Mars and Venus today). There may also have been water vapour and small proportions of methane and ammonia. TASK: Draw a bar chart to compare the atmospheres of Venus, mars and Earth. (Low Demand) Then write a detailed paragraph to explain how they are different and what that means changed. (Medium Demand) Gas Mars today Venus today Earth carbon dioxide nitrogen argon1.6trace0.9 oxygen, water vapour and other gases trace 22

22 Mr Powell 2012 Index Oxygen and carbon dioxide: The Earth’s early atmosphere is believed to have been mainly carbon dioxide with little or no oxygen gas. The Earth’s atmosphere today contains around 21 percent oxygen and about 0.04 percent carbon dioxide. So how did the proportion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere go down, and the proportion of oxygen go up? Increasing oxygen: Plants and algae can carry out photosynthesis. This process uses carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (with water and sunlight) to produce oxygen (and glucose). The appearance of plants and algae caused the production of oxygen, which is why the proportion of oxygen went up. Decreasing carbon dioxide: Photosynthesis by plants and algae used carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but this is not the only reason why the proportion of carbon dioxide went down. These processes also absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere: dissolving in the oceans the production of sedimentary rocks such as limestone the production of fossil fuels from the remains of dead plants and animals Today, the burning of fossil fuels (coal and oil) is adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere faster than it can be removed. This means that the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is increasing, contributing to global warming. It also means that the oceans are becoming more acidic as they dissolve increasing amounts of carbon dioxide. This has an impact on the marine environment, for example making the shells of sea creatures thinner than normal.

23 Mr Powell 2012 Index Chemistry C1 7.3 The Earth’s atmosphere in the past Answers to in-text questions a carbon dioxide b very little or none Summary answers 1 dioxide, water, methane, volcanoes, oxygen 2 From gases emitted by volcanoes. 3 The temperature was too high. 4 Student chart showing development from early volcanicatmosphere to the fi rst plant-produced oxygen and the removal of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis.

24 Mr Powell 2012 Index C7.4 Life on Earth d) There are many theories as to how life was formed billions of years ago. e) One theory as to how life was formed involves the interaction between hydrocarbons, ammonia and lightning. (HT Only) (Candidates should be aware of the Miller-Urey experiment and the ‘primordial soup‘ theory, but they should know that this is not the only theory.) d) There are many theories as to how life was formed billions of years ago. e) One theory as to how life was formed involves the interaction between hydrocarbons, ammonia and lightning. (HT Only) (Candidates should be aware of the Miller-Urey experiment and the ‘primordial soup‘ theory, but they should know that this is not the only theory.)

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26 Mr Powell 2012 Index Chemistry C1 7.4Life on Earth Answers to in-text questions a carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen b Because it contains organic molecules which support the theory that the molecules of life might have arrived from outer space. Summary answers 1 a They reacted a mixture of water, ammonia, methane and hydrogen to model the early atmosphere. To produce the energy needed for reactions to take place they used a high voltage. They kept the experiment going for a week, then analysed the mixture of new compounds formed. b C – It showed that biological molecules can be made from substance that could have been in the early atmosphere. 2 a The mixture of organic compounds brewing in prehistoric seas. b The organic molecules could have reacted together to make biological molecules, such as self-replicating proteins, that could have gone on to make the first cells.

27 Mr Powell 2012 Index C7.5 Gases in the Atmosphere a) For 200 million years, the proportions of different gases in the atmosphere have been much the same as they are today: ■ about four-fifths (80%) nitrogen ■ about one-fifth (20%) oxygen ■ small proportions of various other gases, including carbon dioxide, water vapour and noble gases. g) Most of the carbon from the carbon dioxide in the air gradually became locked up in sedimentary rocks as carbonates and fossil fuels. j) Air is a mixture of gases with different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide a source of raw materials used in a variety of industrial processes. (HT Only) (Knowledge of the boiling points of the different gases is not required.) a) For 200 million years, the proportions of different gases in the atmosphere have been much the same as they are today: ■ about four-fifths (80%) nitrogen ■ about one-fifth (20%) oxygen ■ small proportions of various other gases, including carbon dioxide, water vapour and noble gases. g) Most of the carbon from the carbon dioxide in the air gradually became locked up in sedimentary rocks as carbonates and fossil fuels. j) Air is a mixture of gases with different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled to provide a source of raw materials used in a variety of industrial processes. (HT Only) (Knowledge of the boiling points of the different gases is not required.)

28 Mr Powell 2012 Index Chemistry C1 7.5Gases in the atmosphere Answers to in-text questions a into carbonate rocks b oxygen Summary answers 2 a fractional distillation b They solidify out by cooling the air. c i argon ii Because the boiling points of argon and oxygen are very close together.

29 Mr Powell 2012 Index C7.6 Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere h) The oceans also act as a reservoir for carbon dioxide but increased amounts of carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans has an impact on the marine environment. i) Nowadays the release of carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. h) The oceans also act as a reservoir for carbon dioxide but increased amounts of carbon dioxide absorbed by the oceans has an impact on the marine environment. i) Nowadays the release of carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

30 The Ocean Cycle In the oceans, carbon dioxide exchange is largely controlled by sea surface temperatures, circulating currents, and by the biological processes of photosynthesis and respiration. There is a higher capacity to hold a gas with a lower temperature than with a higher temperature, which means that more carbon dioxide can dissolve in cold water than in warm. These cold dense waters sinking at high latitudes are rich in carbon and act to move large quantities of carbon from the surface to deep waters. This mechanism is known as the "solubility pump" or physical mixing. Cold, downward moving currents such as those that occur over the North Atlantic absorb carbon dioxide and transfer it to the deep ocean. Upward moving currents such as those in the tropics bring carbon dioxide up from depths and release it to the atmosphere. Another key biological process occurs in the ocean carbon cycle when carbon dioxide from the atmosphere dissolves in the ocean; it undergoes rapid chemical reactions and only a small fraction remains as carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide and the associated chemical forms are collectively known as dissolved inorganic carbon or DIC. The presence of organisms like plankton (microscopic plants and animals) or calcites transports gases and nutrients from the ocean surface to the deep; this movement is also known as a "biological pump.“ The biological pump, in essence, removes carbon dioxide from the surface water of the ocean, changing it into living matter and distributing it to the deeper water layers, where it is out of contact with the atmosphere. Eventually when plankton decays, the CO2 is then released into the water; most of it becomes absorbed in the sea-water. Although a small but possibly significant percentage of the sinking organic material becomes buried in the ocean sediment, most of the dissolved carbon dioxide eventually returned to the surface. This sedimentary process takes place at an extremely low rate measured in hundreds to thousands of years, meaning that the carbon that is released by human activities will not become geologically sequestered again for many thousands of years

31 The Carbon Cycle The exchange of carbon between the important reservoirs of the biosphere, atmosphere and oceans is known as the carbon cycle. Carbon is an essential component of life on earth and is the basis for all organic molecules. On land, the major exchange of carbon with the atmosphere results from photosynthesis and respiration. Nearly all forms of life on Earth depend on the production of sugars from solar energy and carbon dioxide (photosynthesis) and the metabolism (respiration) of those sugars to produce the chemical energy that facilitates growth and reproduction. When forests are cleared for agriculture, the carbon contained in the living material and soil is released, causing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations to increase. When agricultural land is abandoned and forests are allowed to re-grow, carbon is stored in the accumulating living biomass and soils, causing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations to decrease. Carbon is also stored in fossil fuels, such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. When these are burned, carbon dioxide is also released back into the air. Volcanoes and fires also release large amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. TASK: a.Read the block of text through once. (Basic) b.Highlight each key part or underline. (Basic) c.Draw a diagram to show one of the cycles (Medium Challenge) d.Write your own short summary article explaining the idea behind.. (Harder Challenge) 1. “Carbon Cycle” 2.“The Ocean Cycle” Now fold this sheet in two and stick this part in your book so you can retain the original full information. TASK: a.Read the block of text through once. (Basic) b.Highlight each key part or underline. (Basic) c.Draw a diagram to show one of the cycles (Medium Challenge) d.Write your own short summary article explaining the idea behind.. (Harder Challenge) 1. “Carbon Cycle” 2.“The Ocean Cycle” Now fold this sheet in two and stick this part in your book so you can retain the original full information.

32 Mr Powell 2012 Index The Carbon Cycle


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