2 D19Explain how chemical and physical processes cause carbon to cycle through the major earth reservoirs.
3 Why study the Carbon Cycle? All living organisms are built of carbon compounds. It is the fundamental building block of life.Carbon is cycled among Earth's reservoirs, just like water.
4 Carbon is unique Carbon can form four bonds at a time. It bonds with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and other elements. It can also bond to other carbon atoms, forming a long chain of atomsThese unique properties of carbon allow it to function as the building block for living things.
5 There are 4 Major Reservoirs which comprise the Earth Biosphere – living thingsAtmosphere – the airHydrosphere – the waterLithosphere/ Geosphere – the groundCarbon is found in each of these!whshonorses.wikispaces.com
6 BiosphereThe reservoir known as the biosphere is comprised of living things – plants, animals and everything else in between!flmnh.ufl.eduwildarunachal.org
7 Biosphere The biosphere is all life on our planet. This includes living organisms as well as the un-decomposed remains of dead organisms.The biosphere includes life on land and in the oceans
8 Biosphere CarbonLiving things on our planet are carbon-based because most of the molecules in them are chains of carbon atoms linked together.In the biosphere, carbon is contained within organic molecules which contain carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.Lecithin – triglyceride
12 Atmospheric CarbonIn this reservoir, carbon is found as carbon dioxide (CO2)Carbon dioxide comprises less than 5 % of the atmosphere. It has a residence time of 10 years.But, it plays an important role with regards to our planet’s temperature, as we will discuss later on.
14 HydrosphereThis reservoir encompasses all of the waters on the earth's surface, such as lakes and oceans.The hydrosphere covers about 70% of the surface of the Earth and is the home for many plants and animals.kidsgeo.comnatasha-hydrosphere.blogspot.com
16 Hydrosphere CarbonIn the hydrosphere, carbon mainly exists as dissolved CO2Marine life including plankton and shellfish use this dissolved CO2 combined with Ca as calcium carbonate to form their shells and skeletons.
18 Lithosphere/Geosphere This reservoir consists of the outer solid part of the earth, including the crust and uppermost mantle.oceansjsu.comexploratorium.edu
19 Lithosphere/Geosphere The lithosphere consists of sediment and rocks of the upper crust of the Earth.Carbon enters the lithosphere through ocean sediments and by the burial of decaying organic matter.
20 Lithosphere CarbonCarbon can be found in the lithosphere in two formsLimestone / Dolomite - carbon in this rock originates from the living things in the ocean. Upon their death, these organisms become part of ocean sediments and over time they convert to limestone and becomes part of the lithosphere carbon reservoir.Coal, oil, and natural gas - these are the remains of ancient plants and plankton which have undergone geologic processes.
23 Basic Pathways for Movement of Carbon Diffusion – movement of substances from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentrationRespiration – the process by which cells gain energy from organic molecules which consumes oxygen and releases carbon dioxidePhotosynthesis – the process by which plants create glucose by combining carbon dioxide and water and utilizing the sun’s energy
24 Basic Pathways for Movement of Carbon Eruption of Gases / Volcanic Eruptions – release of gases from the earth’s crustBurial and Sedimentation – the process by which loose materials deposited on the Earth’s surface form layers and eventually form rockWeathering and Erosion – the chemical and physical processes of breaking apart rocks into smaller pieces
25 Short-term (Fast Track) Carbon Cycle PhotosynthesisRespirationDecompositionDiffusionMinutes to Yearsbeta.lpb.org
26 Long-term (Slow Track) Carbon Cycle Weathering and erosionAccumulation of carbon-rich plant and animal material in sedimentsFossil fuel formationThis takes millions of yearsbeta.lpb.orgclimate.be
27 Fast Track vs. Slow Track You will learn more about these from your reading assignment tonight.
28 Sinks and SourcesSinks are ways that carbon is stored for long periods without being reintroduced to the atmosphereSources are ways that carbon is moved into the atmosphereWhen in balance, the total carbon dioxide emissions and removals from the entire carbon cycle are roughly equal.Currently, the sources are overpowering the sinks
29 Overview - Natural Sources and Sinks Billions of tons of atmospheric CO2 are removed from the atmosphere by oceans and growing plants, which function as ‘sinks,’This carbon is emitted back into the atmosphere annually through natural processes also known as ‘sources.’
30 Natural Sources Animals and plants undergo respiration This moves C from biosphere to atmosphereThe oceans undergo diffusion of CO2This moves C from hydrosphere to atmosphereVolcanoes undergo eruptions which release gasesThis moves C from lithosphere to atmosphere.Rocks and minerals undergo weathering and erosionThis moves C from lithosphere to atmosphere or hydrosphere.
31 Natural Sinks Plants undergo photosynthesis; This moves CO2 from the atmosphere to the biosphere.Oceans take in CO2 by diffusionThis moves carbon from the atmosphere to the hydrosphere.
32 Manmade Sources – Use of Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels form over millions of years from buried plant and animal materialWhen fossil fuels are burned to produce energy their carbon is released into the atmosphere as CO2.This is the largest source of CO2 emissions globallykids.britannica.comgeothermal.marin.orgthedailygreen.com
33 Manmade Sources – Deforestation Trees cut down and burnedImpacts temp. and stability of the soilSoil erosionInc. in temp. because soil no longer covered by vegetationHow does it affect the C cycle?en.wikipedia.orgplu.edutime.com
34 Manmade Sources – Cement Manufacturing Calcium carbonate is heated to produce lime and CO2US: 7 – 10 billion metric tons of C per yearHow does it affect the C cycle?stateoftheusa.orgpmhl.co.uk
35 Manmade Sources – Cattle Farming Cattle burps and flatulenceRespirationHow does it affect the C cycle?environmentalparliament.orgoklahomafarmreport.com
36 Manmade Sources – Rice Farming Flooding of rice paddies causes underwater organic matter to decomposeMethane (CH4) is releasedHow does it affect the C cycle?Rice Farming in Louisianaagrariancrisis.inRice Farming in Spaingeobloggingwithmark.blogspot.comgeographyfieldwork.com
37 How man affects sinksGrowing trees and plants remove CO2 from the atmosphere and store it in the biosphere.Humans cause deforestation, which erases this key carbon sink.
38 Manmade Sinks - Carbon Capture and Store Carbon sequestrationCapturing C from power plants and pumping it undergroundExpensiveHow does it affect the C cycle?carboncapture.us
39 Manmade Sinks – Planting Trees How does it affect the C cycle?jiyolive.comtreehugger.commasterfile.com