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Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr Powell 2012 Index Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Connection Connect your learning to the content of the lesson Share the process by which the learning will actually take place Explore the outcomes of the learning, emphasising why this will be beneficial for the learner Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to “show off” their learning Demonstration Use formative feedback – Assessment for Learning Vary the groupings within the classroom for the purpose of learning – individual; pair; group/team; friendship; teacher selected; single sex; mixed sex Offer different ways for the students to demonstrate their understanding Allow the students to “show off” their learning Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students aren’t passive receptors Activation Construct problem-solving challenges for the students Use a multi-sensory approach – VAK Promote a language of learning to enable the students to talk about their progress or obstacles to it Learning as an active process, so the students aren’t passive receptors Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between “subjects” Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A “news broadcast” approach to learning Consolidation Structure active reflection on the lesson content and the process of learning Seek transfer between “subjects” Review the learning from this lesson and preview the learning for the next Promote ways in which the students will remember A “news broadcast” approach to learning

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3 “C1.4 Crude Oil & Fuels” Mr Powell 2012

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9 Index Which word links all of these images...

10 Mr Powell 2012 Index C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2. a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2. C n H 2n+2

11 Mr Powell 2012 Index Hydrocarbon - Alkanes  The hydrocarbon molecules which we find in oil are formed when tiny sea creatures die and are compressed after millions of years of pressure under the sea. The compounds contain hydrogen and carbon. (not water!)  The formula is always fixed with 4 hydrogen to the first carbon then the chains lose one each time you add on a carbon atom.  The shorter the chain the better they burn.  They follow the generic formulae 1)What is a hydrocarbon 2)Give an example of a hydrocarbon 3)Draw out the structure of a hydrocarbon which has 12 hydrogen atoms. D D

12 Mr Powell 2012 Index What is Crude Oil. Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically joined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. This makes it possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. Liebig Condenser, Distillate, Crude oil, Thermometer, water in, Bunsen Burner, water out, TASKS Watch the demonstration of distillation then label up your diagram Then write a paragraph about the process we call “distillation” and its purpose. E-F C/D

13 Mr Powell 2012 Index Match them up.... C/D

14 C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2 C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2 C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2 C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2 C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2 C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2 C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2 C1.4.1 Crude Oil a) Crude oil is a mixture of a very large number of compounds. b) A mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds not chemically combined together. The chemical properties of each substance in the mixture are unchanged. It is possible to separate the substances in a mixture by physical methods including distillation. c) Most of the compounds in crude oil consist of molecules made up of hydrogen and carbon atoms only (hydrocarbons). Most of these are saturated hydrocarbons called alkanes, which have the general formula C n H 2n+2

15 Mr Powell 2012 Index C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability.

16 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms TASK: Can you check this formulae works for butane and write down why that is? C/D

17 Mr Powell 2012 Index Fractions with low boiling points condense at the top Fractions with high boiling points condense at the bottom b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation.

18 Mr Powell 2012 Index More on Fractionating columns TASK: On your diagram label the missing features, then write a paragraph to explain what the process is designed to do. D/E

19 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. Longer chains mean… 1.Less ability to flow 2.Less flammable 3.Less volatile 4.Higher boiling point Increasing length Ethane C C H H H HH H Butane CC H H H H H H C C H H H H

20 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels. One example is boiling point but there are others too... TASK: Look at the pictures and write down a definition for each term in the image. Define what they mean like you were compiling a dictionary. E E

21 Mr Powell 2012 Index Alkanes Boiling Point Graph…

22 C1.4.1 Crude Oil – Fractional Distillation Fill in the gaps then explain the key concept of “Fractional Distillation”....

23 C1.4.1 Crude Oil - Alkanes StructuralChemicalNumber of Nameformulaformula, C n H (2n+2) atoms METHANE CH 4 1 C and 4 H ETHANE 2 C and 6 H P C-C-C B 4 C and 10 H PENT C 5 H 12 HEX C-C-C-C-C-C HEPT C7C7 OCT 8 C NON C9C9 DEC H 22 1) From what you have learned, try and explain the generic formulae for an “Alkane”... 2) Now explain what four properties of an Alkane change when the chains get longer.... 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) From what you have learned, try and explain the generic formulae for an “Alkane”... 2) Now explain what four properties of an Alkane change when the chains get longer.... 1) 2) 3) 4)

24 Mr Powell 2012 Index What is the idea of this triangle?

25 C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability. C1.4.2 Hydrocarbons a) Alkane molecules can be represented in the following forms: b) The many hydrocarbons in crude oil may be separated into fractions, each of which contains molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms, by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at a number of different temperatures. This process is fractional distillation. c) Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how hydrocarbons are used as fuels.... boiling points, viscosity, flammability.

26 Mr Powell 2012 Index C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon Fuels a) Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released. b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. d) Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use. a) Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released. b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. d) Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use.

27 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) Products of Combustion DEMO Small Busen flame Ice Bath Lime water Methane To water pump We can test what the products of combustion with this experiment. 1.Can you guess what gas is given off? 2.What collects in the U tube? 3.Label your copy of the diagram.

28 Mr Powell 2012 Index a) More on Combustion. Most fuels contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulphur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), and sulphur dioxide. Particles may also be released. For example. When Propane burns we can write; Propane + Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide + water C 3 H 8 + 5O 2 -> 3CO 2 + 4H 2 O TASK: On your sheet can you fill in the blanks and also make sure the equation is balanced properly. C/D

29 Mr Powell 2012 Index c) Pollution.... 1)Note down what the reactions are in your book 2)What are 3 problems caused by burning fuels? 3)How can these problems be reduced? 4)Why is reducing them important?

30 Mr Powell 2012 Index Sulphur? Sulphur is an element found in many fossil fuels. When we burn fossil fuels we find that the sulphur is released in the process and forms a compound. TASK Watch the two videos then think about an idea for an equation for burning sulphur in oxygen......

31 Mr Powell 2012 Index Can you say what the products are...

32 Mr Powell 2012 Index C1 1.4 Cleaner Fuels When we burn hydrocarbons as well as producing carbon dioxide and water we also produce other compounds which are not good for the environment and can affect our health. The pollution spreads all around the atmosphere and causes many issues. Sulphur dioxide causes acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and particles cause global dimming. Sulphur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulphur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. Carbon dioxide can be reduced by lowering our use of cars and hydrocarbon fuelled engines. In the media there is a lot of talk about our “Carbon Footprint” or how much CO 2 we emit by being on the planet. 1.Name two different compounds produced when you burn fuels? 2.Write a short paragraph about each compound and its problems? 3.Imagine you are a film star and you need to issue a press statement about how you are reducing your “Carbon Footprint”. What could you say....

33 Mr Powell 2012 Index Element in FuelWaste product ReleasedEffect of Waste Product CarbonCO, CO 2 Causes global warming, particles cause global dimming HydrogenH 2 O (vapour)None SulphurSO 2 Causes Acid Rain Revision – Burning Fuels Element in FuelWaste product ReleasedEffect of Waste Product CO, CO 2 Hydrogen Carbon Sulphur H 2 O (vapour) Causes global warming, particles cause global dimming None Causes Acid Rain SO 2

34 1.What does the graph tell us about people with no car or van? 2.What does the graph tell us about people with two cars or vans? 3.Roughly what % of people are in each category in 2002? 4.Can you think of any reasons why there has been such a change in our society? 5.What impact would you expect by looking at the graph of overall car numbers. Homework - C1 4.4 Cleaner Fuels p69/ C4.5 Alternate Fuels p70 Explain the advantages of biodiesel... Explain the disadvantages of biodiesel... Describe what a biodiesel is... (basic) (harder)

35 Mr Powell 2012 Index Analysis of Data 1.What does the graph tell us about people with no car or van? 2.What does the graph tell us about people with two cars or vans? 3.Roughly what % of people are in each category in 2002? 4.Can you think of any reasons why there has been such a change in our society? 5.What impact would you expect by looking at the graph of overall car numbers.

36 Complete the reactions below. Then comment on the three main environmental issues when you burn fuels like these and explain two ideas to prevent sulfur escaping into he atmosphere. 1) 2) 3) Most fuels contain and/or and may also contain some The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include , (vapour), and dioxide. Particles may also be released. For example. When Propane burns we can write; Propane > C 3 H 8 + -> + C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon Fuels

37 a) Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released. b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. d) Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use. C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon Fuels a) Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released. b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. d) Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use. C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon Fuels a) Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released. b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. d) Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use. C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon Fuels a) Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released. b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. d) Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use. C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon Fuels a) Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released. b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. d) Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use. C1.4.3 Hydrocarbon Fuels a) Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon dioxide, water (vapour), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Solid particles (particulates) may also be released. b) The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels releases energy. During combustion the carbon and hydrogen in the fuels are oxidised. c) Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause acid rain, carbon dioxide causes global warming, and solid particles cause global dimming. d) Sulfur can be removed from fuels before they are burned, for example in vehicles. Sulfur dioxide can be removed from the waste gases after combustion, for example in power stations. e) Biofuels, including biodiesel and ethanol, are produced from plant material. There are economic, ethical and environmental issues surrounding their use.

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