Carbon Resvoirs Plants Terrestrial Biosphere ( fresh water systems, soil, etc.) Oceans Fossil Fuels Movements due to chemical, physical, biological, geological processes
Atmosphere Apprx. 0.04% Important role in supporting life Most recent carbon in atmosphere is due to CFC and green house gases (arthropogenic)
Forests Store 86% of above-ground carbon 73% of Soil carbon Take in carbon that is release by animals
Released into the atmosphere by: Respiration Decay of animal and plant matter Combustion Production of Cement Ocean surfaces Volcanic eruptions
Chemical Reactions Photosynthesis is a complex series of reactions carried out by algae, phytoplankton, and the leaves in plants, which utilize the energy from the sun. The simplified version of this chemical reaction is to utilize carbon dioxide molecules from the air and water molecules and the energy from the sun to produce a simple sugar such as glucose and oxygen molecules as a by product. The simple sugars are then converted into other molecules such as starch, fats, proteins, enzymes, and DNA/RNA. All of the matter of a plant ultimately is produced as a result of this photosynthesis reaction. An important summary statement is that during photosynthesis plants use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.
Chemical Reactions T he process of respiration. The representation of how carbohydrates are broken down, or oxidized, thereby releasing energy for use for the consuming organisms. The carbon used and circulated in photosynthesis represents only a tiny portion of the available global carbon. one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy. It is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in organisms' cells to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions (subdivision of metabolism involving all degradative chemical reactions in the living cell) that involve the oxidation of one molecule and the reduction of another. Carbon cycle - Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 (organic matter) + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + energy
Chemical Reactions Combustion occurs when any organic material is reacted (burned) in the presence of oxygen to give off the products of carbon dioxide and water and ENERGY. The organic material can be any fossil fuel such as natural gas (methane), oil, or coal. Other organic materials that combust are wood, paper, plastics, and cloth. Organic materials contain at least carbon and hydrogen and may include oxygen. If other elements are present they also ultimately combine with oxygen to form a variety of pollutant molecules such as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. Metabolism occurs in animals and humans after the ingestion of organic plant or animal foods. In the cells a series of complex reactions occurs with oxygen to convert for example glucose sugar into the products of carbon dioxide and water and ENERGY. This reaction is also carried out by bacteria in the decomposition/decay of waste materials on land and in the water. An important summary statement is that during combustion/metabolism oxygen is used and carbon dioxide is a product. The whole purpose of both processes is to convert chemical energy into other forms of energy such as heat.
Chemical Reactions Carbon dioxide is slightly soluble and is absorbed into bodies of water such as the ocean and lakes. It is not overly soluble as evidenced by what happens when a can of carbonated soda such as Coke is opened. Some of the dissolved carbon dioxide remains in the water, the warmer the water the less carbon dioxide remains in the water. Some carbon dioxide is used by algae and phytoplankton through the process of photosynthesis. In other marine ecosystems, some organisms such as coral and those with shells take up carbon dioxide from the water and convert it into calcium carbonate. As the shelled organisms die, bits and pieces of the shells fall to the bottom of the oceans and accumulate as sediments. The carbonate sediments are constantly being formed and redissolved in the depths of the oceans. Over long periods of time, the sediments may be raised up as dry land or into mountains. This type of sedimentary rock is called limestone. The carbonates can redissolve releasing carbon dioxide back to the air or water.
Chemical Reactions Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have increased by 30% since 1800’s (industrial revolution). The biggest casue is buring of fossil fuels Burning Coal: C(s) + O 2 CO 2 Burning Coal Natural Gas: CH 4 + 20 2 Co 2 + 2H 2 O Burning Gasoline: 2CH 8 + 25O 2 16CO 2 + 18H 2 O
Effects of Human Intervention on the Carbon Cycle
How Humans Effect the Carbon Cycle Humans effect the carbon cycle in two ways; – Burning Fossil Fuels and Wood – Cutting Down Forests
Keeling Curve Shows the CO2 levels in the atmosphere since 1958
Effects of CO2 Increase Global Warming Shift in Plant Growth Sea Level Rise Plant and Animal Species Range Shifts
The Pathway of Movement This cycle consists of several storage pools of carbon (black text) and the processes by which the different pools give and take carbon (purple arrows and numbers). If more carbon enters a pool than leaves it, that pool is considered a “net carbon sink”. If more carbon leaves a pool than enters it, that pool is considered “net carbon source”.
Forms of Carbon that go through the process of the Carbon Cycle Carbon exists in the nonliving environment as: carbon dioxide(CO2), carbonate rocks(CaCO3), deposits of coal, petroleum, and natural gas, and dead organic matter. Carbon enters the biotic world through the action of autotrophs. Carbon returns to the atmosphere and water by respiration, burning, and decay. carbon dioxide CaCO3 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas