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Earth Systems and Interactions

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Systems and Interactions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Systems and Interactions
How do Earth’s systems interact? Specifically within the: Water cycle, Rock cycle, Carbon cycle, and Phosphorus cycle carbon cycle greenhouse gas phosphorus cycle

2 Earth Systems Earth has smaller systems that function together and make the larger Earth system: the atmosphere the hydrosphere the geosphere the biosphere Lesson 1-1

3 The atmosphere The outermost Earth system is a mixture of gases and particles of matter called the atmosphere. It forms a layer around the other Earth systems. The atmosphere is mainly nitrogen and oxygen gases. Lesson 1-1

4 The hydrosphere The hydrosphere contains all of Earth’s water.
Most of the water in the hydrosphere is on the Earth’s surface—in oceans, glaciers, lakes, ice sheets, ponds, and rivers. Water in the hydrosphere continuously moves from place to place. The amount of water on Earth remains constant over time. Lesson 1-1

5 The geosphere The largest Earth system is the geosphere, which includes the thin layer of soil and rocks on Earth’s surface and all the underlying layers of Earth. Because the geosphere is mainly solid, materials in this system tend to move slowly. Lesson 1-1

6 The biosphere All living things on Earth make up the biosphere.
Lesson 1-1

7 So how do these systems interact with one another?
Earth systems interact by exchanging matter and energy. Matter and energy often change in form as they flow between systems. Lesson 1-2

8 Lesson 1-1

9 Atmosphere Hydrosphere
Gases move freely, helping transport matter and energy among Earth systems. Hydrosphere Many substances are easily dissolved in water, such as salts, minerals, and dissolved gases. These dissolved substances move with the water and results in the interaction among Earth’s systems. The hydrosphere interacts with the geosphere through weathering and erosion.

10 Geosphere The geosphere interacts will all other Earth systems because it is the physical place in which they exist Biosphere Because organisms live in air, water, soil, and rocks, the biosphere is within all other Earth systems. Living things survive using gases from the atmosphere, water from the hydrosphere, and nutrients found in soil and rock

11 The water cycle is the continuous movement of water on, above, and below Earth’s surface.
Lesson 1-2

12 Processes of the water cycle
precipitation: any form of water that falls from the clouds and reaches Earth’s surface evaporation: the process by which water molecules in liquid water escape into the air as water vapor condensation: the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water Lesson 1-2

13 how does the water cycle affect each Earth system?
Let’s with the biosphere: Organisms in the biosphere are dependent on the water cycle, without the movement of water along the surface of the geosphere, living organisms would not survive Next on to the geosphere: The water cycle causes weathering and erosion of Earth’s rocks Through the freezing and melting of Earth’s waters, as well as The various forms of precipitation that fall from the atmosphere to the geosphere

14 how does the water cycle affect each Earth system?
How about the atmosphere: The water cycle moves water into the atmosphere, this creates clouds and the various forms of precipitation, which cause the water cycle and hydrosphere to interact with the biosphere and geosphere Lastly the hydrosphere: The water cycle is was causes the hydrosphere to interact with all of Earth’s other systems

15 The rock cycle is the series of processes that change rocks from one form to another.
Some processes take place deep within Earth, while others, such as weathering and erosion, take place on or near Earth’s surface. Lesson 1-2

16 how is the rock cycle affected by each of Earth’s Systems?
The biosphere, the hydrosphere, and the atmosphere: The living organisms of the biosphere, the water of the hydrosphere, and winds and gases in the atmosphere all help to weather (break down) and erode (move) the rock of the geosphere along Earth’s surface Lastly the geosphere: All parts and processes of the rock cycle take place within the geosphere

17 Video about Carbon Cycle
The carbon cycle is the series of processes that continuously move carbon among Earth systems. Video about Carbon Cycle Lesson 1-2

18 On Earth, most carbon is combined with other elements in compounds.
Carbon in the biosphere is stored in organisms. In both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, carbon exists as gaseous CO2. Lesson 1-2

19 how does carbon move through each of Earth’s systems?
From the geosphere to the atmosphere: Carbon from the geosphere enters the atmosphere as the trace gas CO2 (carbon dioxide) Now the carbon moves to the hydrosphere: Carbon moves from the atmosphere to the hydrosphere when atmospheric CO2 dissolves in water Another path to the hydrosphere: Chemical weathering of rocks moves carbon from the atmosphere and geosphere to the hydrosphere

20 how does carbon move through each of Earth’s systems?
From the biosphere to the atmosphere: Carbon leaves the biosphere through the cellular respiration of organisms From the atmosphere to the biosphere: Carbon in the form of CO2 leaves the atmosphere and enters the biosphere during photosynthesis. From the biosphere to the geosphere: When organisms die and decay, carbon moves from the biosphere to the geosphere Hydrosphere to geosphere: Carbon leaves the hydrosphere and enters the geosphere when sedimentary rocks form on the ocean floor

21 Carbon is in reservoirs, or storage places, within all Earth systems.
As carbon moves through Earth systems, the total amount of carbon in the carbon cycle remains about the same. Carbon is in reservoirs, or storage places, within all Earth systems. Lesson 1-2

22 Some changes in levels of atmospheric CO2 are caused by human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels. CO2 is a greenhouse gas. Greenhouse gases are gases in the atmosphere that absorb and reradiate thermal energy from the Sun. When levels of atmospheric CO2 increase, Earth’s average temperature increases, this phenomenon is known as global warming. Lesson 1-2

23 The Phosphorus Cycle Some important elements do not cycle through all Earth systems. The phosphorus cycle moves phosphorus among three Earth systems. The biosphere, The geosphere, and The hydrosphere Phosphorus, which is not found in nature as an element, forms compounds with oxygen called phosphates (PO4). Lesson 1-2

24 The Phosphorus Cycle Video on the Phosphorus Cycle Lesson 1-2 28
Video on the Phosphorus Cycle Lesson 1-2

25 how do the phosphates move through the three systems involved?
Let’s start in the geosphere: Rocks exposed at Earth’s surface release phosphates when they weather. Now the phosphates move to the hydrosphere: Dissolved phosphate molecules move in liquid water through the water cycle. Back to the geosphere: They eventually reach lake bottoms or the seafloor, where they are deposited along with sediment.

26 how do the phosphates move through the three systems involved?
Now that phosphorus moves from the geosphere or hydrosphere into the biosphere: Plants absorb phosphorus from either soil or water. Animals take in phosphorus when they eat plants or when they eat other animals that have eaten plants. From the biosphere back to the geosphere: These phosphates return to the soil as part of animal waste or as part of decomposing organisms.

27 how do the phosphates move through the three systems involved?
Why isn’t the atmosphere involved? Rocks in the geosphere include minerals that contain phosphates. Phosphorus dissolved in liquid water does not evaporate into the atmosphere. What is the timing for all of this cycling? The cycling of phosphorus through the geosphere and the hydrosphere occurs over long periods of time. Phosphorus stored in organisms in the biosphere recycles more quickly. Lesson 1-3

28 How do we as humans affect this natural cycle?
Clearing the trees in rain forests disturbs the phosphorus cycle. Runoff from farms, homes, and factories can contain phosphorus. Algae consume the phosphorus, and the algae population increases.

29 Excess algae decompose and use up oxygen in the water.
Lesson 1-3

30 Human activities disturb natural cycles.
Earth systems include the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere, and the geosphere. Examples of interactions among Earth systems include the water cycle, the rock cycle, the carbon cycle, and the phosphorus cycle. Human activities disturb natural cycles. Lesson 1 - VS

31 Where is most of Earth’s carbon stored?
A. atmosphere B. biosphere C. geosphere D. hydrosphere Lesson 1 – LR1

32 Which is a greenhouse gas?
A. carbon B. carbon dioxide C. oxygen D. phosphorus Lesson 1 – LR2

33 What enters the atmosphere from the geosphere as CO2?
A. carbon B. hydrogen C. phosphates D. phosphorus Lesson 1 – LR3

34 1. The amount of water on Earth remains constant over time.
Do you agree or disagree? 1. The amount of water on Earth remains constant over time. 2. Hydrogen makes up the hydrosphere. 3. Most carbon on Earth is in the atmosphere. Lesson 1 - Now

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