Carbon reservoirs The atmosphere -as carbon dioxide The biosphere - as organic carbon (include fresh water systems and non-living organic material, such as soil carbon). The oceans - as dissolved carbon dioxide and molecules like calcium carbonate ( including dissolved inorganic carbon and living and non-living marine biota). The lithosphere as sedimentary rock like limestone and metamorphic rock like marble (sediments, Earth core including fossil fuels).
Carbon is released into the atmosphere in several ways Respiration by plants and animals. Decay of animal and plant matter. Combustion of organic material Production of cement made from limestone The ocean releases CO2 by diffusion into the atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism
Carbon is taken from the atmosphere in several ways Photosynthesis. The oceans when the seawater becomes cooler, more CO 2 dissolve and become carbonic acid. In the upper ocean areas organisms convert reduced carbon to organic molecules, or carbonates.
Photosynthesis sunlight 6CO 2 + 12H 2 O + ---------->C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Chlorophyll
Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 --> 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + usable energy(ATP)
Combustion or Oxidization of hydrocarbon CH 4 + 2 O 2 --> CO 2 + 2 H 2 O + energy
Human Impacts on the Carbon Cycle The burning of fossil fuels has a serious impact on the carbon cycle.
Fossil Fuel 86% of global primary energy consumption is fossil fuels.
Keeling Curve Question: Why does line of the curve go up and down by about 5 ppmv instead of in a straight line?
What process is occurring at each number? Photosynthesis Animal Respiration Decay of animal wastes Decay of plant litter Plant Respiration
Carbon Cycle Summary ProcessOrganism C changed from C changed to Photosynthesis Respiration Decomposition Combustion Dissolution (Dissolved) Lithification Eruption of volcanos Green Plants, Algae, some bacteria CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 All organismsC 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 Decay bacteria, Fungi Organic Carbon CO 2 N/A Burning Organic Carbon CO 2 N/A In water CO 2 Carbonic acid N/A Forming rocks Plant and animal remains Fossil fuels CaCO3 Calcium carbonate Limestone, Marble Limestone, Marble CO 2 N/A Gas from volcanos
Part II: The Carbon Reservoirs On a global scale, carbon moves between four major reservoirs (also called carbon sinks). These reservoirs include ______________________, ______________________,______________________, and __________________________. Which reservoir contains the most carbon? _______________. Atmosphere Biosphere Lithosphere Ocean Lithosphere
Part III: The Biological (Biotic) Processes 1. Photosynthesis is a process that takes place in organisms containing pigments capable of capturing the energy of light. The main photosynthetic pigment is the green pigment called chlorophyll found in green plants, algae, and Cyanobacteria. Organisms with this pigment are able to remove ___________________________ from the atmosphere and combine it with ________________ in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight making ____________________ (energy storage molecules) and releasing the gas _________________ to the atmosphere. Complete the generalized equation: Sunlight ________ + ________ --------------------> ________ + ________ Chlorophyll Carbon dioxide Water Glucose Oxygen 6 CO 2 12 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 6 O26 O2
2. Cellular respiration is a process that takes place in cells that releases the chemical energy stored in larger molecules to be restored in small molecules that cells can use. The process takes the larger energy storage molecule called __________________ and combines it with __________________ from the atmosphere. This releases the chemical energy that is captured by the small energy molecules called ____________ that can be used by cells. End products of cellular respiration are _______________ and _________________ which is released into the atmosphere. Complete the generalized equation: __________ + __________ --------------------> _________ + __________ + __________ Glucose Oxygen ATP carbon dioxide water C 6 H 12 O 6 6 O26 O2 6 CO 2 6 H 2 O ATP
Part IV: The Inorganic (abiotic) Processes 1.The burning of any organic matter form fossil fuels to forests rapidly releases the carbon stored in its molecules as the gas _______________________ to the atmosphere. 2. Carbon as the gas _____________________ readily dissolves into bodies of water from ponds to oceans. This gas readily combines with water molecules to form an acid called _______________________ often lowering the pH of the water. Carbon dioxide Carbonic Acid
3. Aquatic organisms that protect themselves with shells combine the gas _____________________ with the mineral calcium making _____________________, the material that forms its shell. When these shelled organisms died, their shells rain down to the bottom of the lake or ocean collecting in deep layers as sediment. Slowly, the shells are compressed into sedimentary rock in a process called _________________________ 4. Over geologic time, sedimentary and metamorphic rock containing carbon are subducted, melted and rise toward the surface of the earth as magma and gases like _________________________ which are released into the atmosphere when volcanos ______________________. Carbon dioxideCalcium carbonate Limestone Erupt Carbon dioxide