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I. Habsburg-Valois Wars (c )

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2 I. Habsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559)
A. Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis (1559) Ended Hapsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars in 16th century) The wars had been political in nature (not religious) as both France and the HRE were Catholic. B. France kept the HRE from controlling all of Germany while inadvertently helping Lutheranism to spread. France saw keeping Germany divided as more important than religious unity in Europe. 2. This prevented German unification for three centuries.

3 II. From 1560 to 1648 wars would be fought largely over religious issues.
Spain sought to squash Protestantism in Western Europe and the spread of Islam in the Mediterranean. French Catholics sought to squash the Huguenots. The Holy Roman Empire sought to re-impose Catholicism in Germany. The Calvinist Netherlands sought to break away from Spanish rule. A civil war occurred in England between Puritans and Anglicans.

4 Know These Wars! The Dutch Revolt Spanish Armada’s attack on England
French Civil Wars Thirty Years’ War English Civil War

5 III. Spain’s Catholic Crusade
A. Philip II (r ): continued the crusade of his father, Charles V, to reunify Europe under Catholicism 1. Oversaw the “Golden Age of Spain” 2. Escorial: new royal palace (and monastery) built in the shape of a grill to commemorate the martyrdom of St Lawrence -- Symbolized the power of Philip and his commitment to Catholicism Wikipedia Commons Portrait by Titian, Prado Museum, Spain

6 The Escorial Built by Philip II
Wikipedia Commons

7 c. Phillip II opposed the spread of
Protestantism into England, France, the Netherlands and Germany.

8 B. Philip waged war against the Turks in the Mediterranean to secure the region for Christian merchants. 1. Battle of Lepanto (1571): Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece. 2. Philip’s religious fervor against the Turks resembled the earlier Christian Crusades. b. End of Turkish threat in the Mediterranean Wikipedia Commons

9 Philip II offers his son (Allegory of the Battle of Lepanto), 1571 By Titian
Museo del Prado, Madrid

10 “William the Silent” Prince of Orange
C. The Dutch Revolt ( ) 1. William of Orange ( ) led 17 provinces against the Spanish Inquisition of Philip II. -- Philip sought to crush the rise of Calvinism in the Netherlands. Wikipedia Commons Rijksmuseum Amsterdam “William the Silent” Prince of Orange

11 2. United Provinces of the Netherlands formed in 1581 (Dutch Republic)
a. Received aid from England under Elizabeth I b. Major blow to Philip’s goal of maintaining Catholicism throughout his empire

12 c. Spanish Netherlands (modern-. day Belgium): 10 southern
c. Spanish Netherlands (modern- day Belgium): 10 southern provinces remained under Spanish control d. Dutch closing of Scheldt River led to Antwerp’s decline as a commercial center -- Amsterdam became the new mercantile center

13 Map of the Dutch Republic

14 a. Marriage to Philip II of Spain
D. Spain vs. England 1. Mary Tudor ( ) “Bloody Mary” sought to re-impose Catholicism in England a. Marriage to Philip II of Spain b. After her death, Elizabeth I reversed Mary’s course via the “Elizabethan Settlement” c. Elizabeth later refused Philip’s request for marriage. Portrait of Philip and Mary, Wikipedia Commons

15 -- Had Mary, Queen of Scots beheaded in 1587
Elizabeth I ( ) helped the Protestant Netherlands in their revolt against Spain -- Had Mary, Queen of Scots beheaded in 1587 3. Philip II sought revenge for England’s support of the Dutch Revolt; he also sought to make England Catholic again -- Thus planned a monumental invasion of England Wikipedia Commons Painting by Giacomo Antonio Moro, 16th century

16 4. Spanish Armada, 1588 a. Spain’s attempt to invade England ended in disaster. b. Spanish navy destroyed by a raging storm in the English Channel and England’s smaller but more efficient navy Wikipedia Commons, unknown painter, English School, 16th century

17 Painting by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg
This 1796 painting by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg depicts the English victory over the Spanish Armada in the battle of Gravelines, fought August 8, 1588. Painting of the English victory over the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines, August 8, 1858. Painting by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg

18 Wikipedia Commons Painting by George Gower, c. 1588 Woburn Abbey
Portrait of Elizabeth I, commemorating England’s victory over the Spanish Armada. Note Elizabeth’s right had on the globe, symbolizing England’s rise to international power.

19 D. French Civil Wars (9 wars from 1562-89)
Power struggle after death of Henry II in 1559 between 3 noble families a. The throne remained under the Catholic Valois family. b. Three Valois kings n were dominated by their mother, Catherine de Medicis, who, as regent, fought to maintain Catholic c control of France.

20 2. Between 40-50% of nobles became Calvinists (Huguenots)—many were Bourbons
a. Many nobles sought independence from the crown b. Resulted in feudal disorder in France 3. The ultra-Catholic Guise family also competed for the throne; strongly anti-Bourbon 4. Fighting began in 1562 between Catholics and Calvinists. -- Atrocities occurred

21 B. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, August 24, 1572
1. Marriage of Margaret of Valois to a Huguenot Bourbon Henry of Navarre was intended to reconcile Catholics and Calvinists 2. Rioting occurred when a Guise leader had a leader of the Huguenot party murdered the night before the wedding 3. Catherine de Medicis ordered the massacre of Calvinists in response. -- 20,000 Huguenots killed by early October

22 4. The massacre initiated the War of the Three Henrys: civil wars between the Valois, Guise, and Bourbons Wikipedia Commons: Painting by François Dubois, a Huguenot painter born circa 1529 in Amiens, who settled in Switzerland. Although Dubois did not witness the massacre, he depicts Admiral Coligny's body hanging out of a window at the rear to the right. To the left rear, Catherine de' Medici is shown emerging from the Château du Louvre to inspect a heap of bodies.

23 C. Henry IV (r. 1589-1610): 1st Bourbon king 1
C. Henry IV (r ): 1st Bourbon king 1. One of most important kings in French history 2. His rise to power ended the French civil wars and placed France on the road to absolutism 3. Henry was a politique (like Elizabeth I) a. Sought practical political solutions b. Converted to Catholicism to gain the loyalty of Paris --- Allegedly stated, “Paris is worth a Mass” Wikipedia Commons

24 4. Edict of Nantes, 1598: Henry granted religious toleration to Huguenots a. Permitted Huguenots to worship privately b. Gave Huguenots access to universities, public office, and fortified towns Wikipedia Commons Painting by Hans Pourbus the Younger

25 V. Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648): most important war of the 17th century
A. Failure of Peace of Augsburg (1555) Agreement had given Germany princes the right to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism in the HRE Factionalism in the HRE precipitated the cataclysmic war

26 Holy Roman Empire About 1618
Wikipedia Commons

27 B. Four phases of the war 1. Bohemian Phase (1618-1625) a
B. Four phases of the war 1. Bohemian Phase ( ) a. “Defenestration of Prague” (1618) triggered the war b. Protestant forces were eventually defeated and Protestantism was eliminated in Bohemia. Wikipedia Commons Woodcut by Matthaus Merian the Elder

28 Wikipedia Commons The castle from where the two Catholic officials were thrown out the third-story window.

29 -- Invaded northern Germany
2. Danish Phase ( ): represented the height of Catholic power during the war a. Albrecht von Wallenstein ( ): mercenary general paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE -- Invaded northern Germany b. Edict of Restitution (1629): emperor declared all church territories secularized since to be restored to the Catholic church Wikipedia Commons Painting by Anthony Van Dyck, 1629

30 -- Gustavus Adolphus killed in battle the following year
3. Swedish Phase ( ): Protestants liberated territory lost during the Danish Phase a. Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, (r ): led army that pushed Catholic forces all the way back to Bohemia -- Battle of Breitenfeld (1631): ended Habsburg hopes of reuniting the HRE -- Gustavus Adolphus killed in battle the following year Wikipedia Commons Painting by Anthony Van Dyck, 1629

31 Painting by Albert Cuyp
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, at the Battle of Breitenfeld, 17 September 1631 Painting by Albert Cuyp

32 b. In response, the emperor annulled the Edict of Restitution
c. Swedish army defeated by the HRE in 1634; France now feared a resurgence of Catholicism in the HRE Wikipedia Commons Painting by Anthony Van Dyck, 1629

33 4. French Phase ( ) a. Cardinal Richelieu ( ) allied with Protestant forces to defeat the HRE -- Allied with Holland, Sweden, Finland, and German mercenaries. b. Richelieu’s policies reflected Catholic France’s paramount diplomatic concerns as political, not religious; thus he can be seen as a politique

34 Cardinal Richelieu c. 1637 OiI on canvas National Gallery, London

35 C. Treaty of Westphalia (1648):
1. Renewal of Peace of Augsburg but added Calvinism as a politically accepted faith. a. Ended the Catholic Reformation in Germany b. Guaranteed Germany would be divided politically and religiously for centuries

36 2. Dissolution of Holy Roman Empire confirmed
a. Dutch and Swiss independence from Spanish rule b German states became sovereign c. Pope was denied the right to intervene in HRE affairs 3. France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (future Prussia) gained territory and international stature. 4. Two Habsburg branches weakened: a. Spain saw its empire decline b. Austrian Habsburgs lost much influence in Germany

37 Holy Roman Empire in 1648 Wikipedia Commons

38 Europe in 1648 Wikipedia Commons

39 D. Results and aftermath
About 1/3 of the German population perished Germany further divided as a result of the decline of the HRE End of the wars of religion Rise of France as the dominant European power; also saw the political rise of England, the Netherlands, and Prussia -- Balance of power diplomacy emerged in Europe

40 Directly against Emperor Indirectly against Emperor
Wikipedia Commons Directly against Emperor Indirectly against Emperor Directly for Emperor Indirectly for Emperor

41 Population Loss in Germany during the 30 Years’ War
Wikipedia Commons (modified) 11-40% 40-50+%

42 “EF-CHIP” Memory Device for Treaty of Westphalia:
E nd of Wars of Religion F rance emerges as Europe’s most powerful country C alvinism added to the Peace of Augsburg H oly Roman Empire effectively destroyed I ndependence for the Netherlands and Switzerland P russia emerges as a great power NOT FOR PUBLICATION

43 VI. English Civil War (1642-49)
A. Since the reign of the Stuart king, James I ( ), a struggle ensued between the king and Parliament over taxation and liberties 1. Both James I, and his son, Charles I, believed in “divine right” of kings and absolutism 2. Monarchy supported the Anglican Church Wikipedia Commons Portrait by Daniel Mijtens (c c.1647) National Portrait Gallery, London The Scottish King James VI became James I of England following the death of Queen Elizabeth. He was the first of four Stuart kings to rule England in the 17th century.

44 B. Parliament was composed of many Puritans (English Calvinists) and Presbyterians (English Calvinists who favored the Scottish Presbyterian organization of John Knox) Wikipedia Commons, "The Assertion of Liberty of Conscience By the Independents at the Westminster Assembly of Divines" by John Rogers Herbert (1810–1890).

45 C. Charles I (r. 1625-1649) twice dissolved Parliament (1629 & 1640)
1. In effect, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch between 1629 and 1640. The son of James I, Charles was the second Stuart king to rule England after the death of Elizabeth in 1603. Wikipedia Commons Portrait of King Charles I in his robes of state Painted by Anthony van Dyck, Royal Collection

46 2. He raised money using Medieval forms
2. He raised money using Medieval forms of taxation (those with wealth were obligated to pay) 3. “Ship money”: all counties were required to pay to outfit ships where before, only coastal communities had paid. 4. Religious persecution of Puritans by Charles I became the biggest reason for the English Civil War.

47 An English cartoon from the 1640s
D. Civil war broke out in Cavaliers supported the king and Church of England 2. Puritans (Roundheads) supported Parliament public domain An English cartoon from the 1640s

48 E. Oliver Cromwell, a fiercely Puritan Independent and military leader of the Roundheads, led his New Model Army to victory over the Cavaliers. 1. A division between Puritans and Presbyterians (and non-Puritans) developed late in the war. 2. Pride’s Purge, 1648: Elements of the New Model Army removed all non-Puritans from Parliament leaving a “Rump Parliament” Wikipedia Commons Painting by William Cooper, Located at National Portrait Gallery, London

49 A contemporary woodcut of the beheading of Charles I, 1649
F. Charles I was beheaded in 1649 -- First European king ever to be executed by his own subjects A contemporary woodcut of the beheading of Charles I, 1649 public domain

50 G. New sects emerged: 1. Levellers: radical religious revolutionaries who sought social and political reforms to create a more egalitarian society 2. Diggers: denied Parliament’s political authority and rejected private ownership of land 3. Quakers: influenced by Anabaptists a. Believed each person had an “inner light” within him/her b. Rejected official Church authority c. Pacifists who opposed war d. Women were allowed to preach

51 H. The Interregnum (1649-1660): rule with no king
1. The Commonwealth ( ): a republic was created after the war that abolished the monarchy and House of Lords a. The new republic failed to govern effectively b. Cromwell dissolved the “Rump Parliament” in 1653

52 2. The Protectorate: Cromwell became
2. The Protectorate: Cromwell became Lord Protector (a Puritan dictatorship) a. Denied religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholics b. Allowed Jews to return to England 3. Invasion of Ireland, 1649: Cromwell put down an Irish revolt that favored Royalist forces in England 4. Scotland conquered in

53 5. Puritan dictatorship sought to regulate the moral life of England
a. Dancing, gambling, drinking, and prostitution were illegalized b. Seriously alienated people from Cromwell’s rule 6. Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, who ruled ineffectively 7. Stuarts were restored to the monarchy under Charles II (r ) in 1660

54 The Anatomy of Revolution
Revolution run by Moderates (Parliament: Puritans and Presbyterians) Radicals take revolution to the extreme Independents under Cromwell (New Model Army); (Levellers & Diggers are even more extreme) “Old Regime” –Conservatives (Royalists) Radical Conservative Source: Based on Brinton Crane, The Anatomy of Revolution, New York: Vintage, 1969 Thermidor: Move away from extremism (Cromwell’s Protectorate) Restoration: Return of conservatives to power (Charles II)

55 “30 FEDS” 30 Years’ War F rench Civil Wars E nglish Civil War
Memory Device for the Religious Wars “30 FEDS” 30 Years’ War F rench Civil Wars E nglish Civil War D utch Revolt S panish Armada NOT FOR PUBLICATION

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