2 I. Habsburg-Valois Wars (c. 1519-1559) A. Treaty of Cateau-Cambrèsis (1559)Ended Hapsburg-Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars in 16th century)The wars had been political in nature (not religious) as both France and the HRE were Catholic.B. France kept the HRE from controlling all of Germany while inadvertently helping Lutheranism to spread.France saw keeping Germany divided as more important than religious unity in Europe.2. This prevented German unification for three centuries.
3 II. From 1560 to 1648 wars would be fought largely over religious issues. Spain sought to squash Protestantism in Western Europe and the spread of Islam in the Mediterranean.French Catholics sought to squash the Huguenots.The Holy Roman Empire sought to re-impose Catholicism in Germany.The Calvinist Netherlands sought to break away from Spanish rule.A civil war occurred in England between Puritans and Anglicans.
4 Know These Wars! The Dutch Revolt Spanish Armada’s attack on England French Civil WarsThirty Years’ WarEnglish Civil War
5 III. Spain’s Catholic Crusade A. Philip II (r ): continued the crusade of his father, Charles V, to reunify Europe under Catholicism1. Oversaw the “Golden Age of Spain”2. Escorial: new royal palace (and monastery) built in the shape of a grill to commemorate the martyrdom of St Lawrence-- Symbolized the power of Philip and his commitment to CatholicismWikipedia Commons Portrait by Titian, Prado Museum, Spain
6 The Escorial Built by Philip II Wikipedia Commons
7 c. Phillip II opposed the spread of Protestantism into England,France, the Netherlands andGermany.
8 B. Philip waged war against the Turks in the Mediterranean to secure the region for Christian merchants. 1. Battle of Lepanto (1571): Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece. 2. Philip’s religious fervor against the Turks resembled the earlier Christian Crusades. b. End of Turkish threat in the MediterraneanWikipedia Commons
9 Philip II offers his son (Allegory of the Battle of Lepanto), 1571 By Titian Museo del Prado, Madrid
10 “William the Silent” Prince of Orange C. The Dutch Revolt ( )1. William of Orange ( ) led 17 provinces against the Spanish Inquisition of Philip II.-- Philip sought to crush the rise of Calvinism in the Netherlands.Wikipedia Commons Rijksmuseum Amsterdam“William the Silent” Prince of Orange
11 2. United Provinces of the Netherlands formed in 1581 (Dutch Republic) a. Received aid from England under Elizabeth Ib. Major blow to Philip’s goal of maintaining Catholicism throughout his empire
12 c. Spanish Netherlands (modern-. day Belgium): 10 southern c. Spanish Netherlands (modern- day Belgium): 10 southern provinces remained under Spanish controld. Dutch closing of Scheldt River led to Antwerp’s decline as a commercial center-- Amsterdam became the new mercantile center
14 a. Marriage to Philip II of Spain D. Spain vs. England1. Mary Tudor ( ) “Bloody Mary” sought to re-impose Catholicism in Englanda. Marriage to Philip II of Spainb. After her death, Elizabeth I reversed Mary’s course via the “Elizabethan Settlement”c. Elizabeth later refused Philip’s request for marriage.Portrait of Philip and Mary, Wikipedia Commons
15 -- Had Mary, Queen of Scots beheaded in 1587 Elizabeth I ( ) helped the Protestant Netherlands in their revolt against Spain-- Had Mary, Queen of Scots beheaded in 15873. Philip II sought revenge for England’s support of the Dutch Revolt; he also sought to make England Catholic again-- Thus planned a monumental invasion of EnglandWikipedia Commons Painting by Giacomo Antonio Moro, 16th century
16 4. Spanish Armada, 1588 a. Spain’s attempt to invade England ended in disaster. b. Spanish navy destroyed by a raging storm in the English Channel and England’s smaller but more efficient navyWikipedia Commons, unknown painter, English School, 16th century
17 Painting by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg This 1796 painting by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg depicts the English victory over the Spanish Armada in the battle of Gravelines, fought August 8, 1588.Painting of the English victory over the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines, August 8, 1858.Painting by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg
18 Wikipedia Commons Painting by George Gower, c. 1588 Woburn Abbey Portrait of Elizabeth I, commemorating England’s victory over the Spanish Armada. Note Elizabeth’s right had on the globe, symbolizing England’s rise to international power.
19 D. French Civil Wars (9 wars from 1562-89) Power struggle after death of Henry II in 1559 between 3 noble familiesa. The throne remained under the Catholic Valois family.b. Three Valois kings n were dominated by their mother, Catherine de Medicis, who, as regent, fought to maintain Catholic c control of France.
20 2. Between 40-50% of nobles became Calvinists (Huguenots)—many were Bourbons a. Many nobles sought independence from the crownb. Resulted in feudal disorder in France3. The ultra-Catholic Guise family also competed for the throne; strongly anti-Bourbon4. Fighting began in 1562 between Catholics and Calvinists.-- Atrocities occurred
21 B. St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, August 24, 1572 1. Marriage of Margaret of Valois to a Huguenot Bourbon Henry of Navarre was intended to reconcile Catholics and Calvinists2. Rioting occurred when a Guise leader had a leader of the Huguenot party murdered the night before the wedding3. Catherine de Medicis ordered the massacre of Calvinists in response.-- 20,000 Huguenots killed by early October
22 4. The massacre initiated the War of the Three Henrys: civil wars between the Valois, Guise, and BourbonsWikipedia Commons: Painting by François Dubois, a Huguenot painter born circa 1529 in Amiens, who settled in Switzerland. Although Dubois did not witness the massacre, he depicts Admiral Coligny's body hanging out of a window at the rear to the right. To the left rear, Catherine de' Medici is shown emerging from the Château du Louvre to inspect a heap of bodies.
23 C. Henry IV (r. 1589-1610): 1st Bourbon king 1 C. Henry IV (r ): 1st Bourbon king 1. One of most important kings in French history 2. His rise to power ended the French civil wars and placed France on the road to absolutism 3. Henry was a politique (like Elizabeth I) a. Sought practical political solutions b. Converted to Catholicism to gain the loyalty of Paris --- Allegedly stated, “Paris is worth a Mass”Wikipedia Commons
24 4. Edict of Nantes, 1598: Henry granted religious toleration to Huguenots a. Permitted Huguenots to worship privately b. Gave Huguenots access to universities, public office, and fortified townsWikipedia Commons Painting by Hans Pourbus the Younger
25 V. Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648): most important war of the 17th century A. Failure of Peace of Augsburg (1555)Agreement had given Germany princes the right to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism in the HREFactionalism in the HRE precipitated the cataclysmic war
27 B. Four phases of the war 1. Bohemian Phase (1618-1625) a B. Four phases of the war 1. Bohemian Phase ( ) a. “Defenestration of Prague” (1618) triggered the war b. Protestant forces were eventually defeated and Protestantism was eliminated in Bohemia.Wikipedia Commons Woodcut by Matthaus Merian the Elder
28 Wikipedia CommonsThe castle from where the two Catholic officials were thrown out the third-story window.
29 -- Invaded northern Germany 2. Danish Phase ( ): represented the height of Catholic power during the wara. Albrecht von Wallenstein ( ): mercenary general paid by the emperor to fight for the HRE-- Invaded northern Germanyb. Edict of Restitution (1629): emperor declared all church territories secularized since to be restored to the Catholic churchWikipedia Commons Painting by Anthony Van Dyck, 1629
30 -- Gustavus Adolphus killed in battle the following year 3. Swedish Phase ( ): Protestants liberated territory lost during the Danish Phasea. Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, (r ): led army that pushed Catholic forces all the way back to Bohemia-- Battle of Breitenfeld (1631): ended Habsburg hopes of reuniting the HRE-- Gustavus Adolphus killed in battle the following yearWikipedia Commons Painting by Anthony Van Dyck, 1629
31 Painting by Albert Cuyp Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, at the Battle of Breitenfeld, 17 September 1631Painting by Albert Cuyp
32 b. In response, the emperor annulled the Edict of Restitution c. Swedish army defeated by the HRE in 1634; France now feared a resurgence of Catholicism in the HREWikipedia Commons Painting by Anthony Van Dyck, 1629
33 4. French Phase ( )a. Cardinal Richelieu ( ) allied with Protestant forces to defeat the HRE-- Allied with Holland, Sweden, Finland, and German mercenaries.b. Richelieu’s policies reflected Catholic France’s paramount diplomatic concerns as political, not religious; thus he can be seen as a politique
34 Cardinal Richelieu c. 1637 OiI on canvas National Gallery, London
35 C. Treaty of Westphalia (1648): 1. Renewal of Peace of Augsburg but added Calvinism as a politically accepted faith.a. Ended the Catholic Reformation in Germanyb. Guaranteed Germany would be divided politically and religiously for centuries
36 2. Dissolution of Holy Roman Empire confirmed a. Dutch and Swiss independence from Spanish ruleb German states became sovereignc. Pope was denied the right to intervene in HRE affairs3. France, Sweden, and Brandenburg (future Prussia) gained territory and international stature.4. Two Habsburg branches weakened:a. Spain saw its empire declineb. Austrian Habsburgs lost much influence in Germany
39 D. Results and aftermath About 1/3 of the German population perishedGermany further divided as a result of the decline of the HREEnd of the wars of religionRise of France as the dominant European power; also saw the political rise of England, the Netherlands, and Prussia-- Balance of power diplomacy emerged in Europe
40 Directly against Emperor Indirectly against Emperor Wikipedia CommonsDirectly against EmperorIndirectly against EmperorDirectly for EmperorIndirectly for Emperor
41 Population Loss in Germany during the 30 Years’ War Wikipedia Commons (modified)11-40%40-50+%
42 “EF-CHIP” Memory Device for Treaty of Westphalia: E nd of Wars of ReligionF rance emerges as Europe’s most powerful countryC alvinism added to the Peace of AugsburgH oly Roman Empire effectively destroyedI ndependence for the Netherlands and SwitzerlandP russia emerges as a great powerNOT FOR PUBLICATION
43 VI. English Civil War (1642-49) A. Since the reign of the Stuart king, James I ( ), a struggle ensued between the king and Parliament over taxation and liberties1. Both James I, and his son, Charles I, believed in “divine right” of kings and absolutism2. Monarchy supported the Anglican ChurchWikipedia Commons Portrait by Daniel Mijtens (c c.1647) National Portrait Gallery, LondonThe Scottish King James VI became James I of England following the death of Queen Elizabeth. He was the first of four Stuart kings to rule England in the 17th century.
44 B. Parliament was composed of many Puritans (English Calvinists) and Presbyterians (English Calvinists who favored the Scottish Presbyterian organization of John Knox)Wikipedia Commons, "The Assertion of Liberty of Conscience By the Independents at the Westminster Assembly of Divines" by John Rogers Herbert (1810–1890).
45 C. Charles I (r. 1625-1649) twice dissolved Parliament (1629 & 1640) 1. In effect, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch between 1629 and 1640.The son of James I, Charles was the second Stuart king to rule England after the death of Elizabeth in 1603.Wikipedia Commons Portrait of King Charles I in his robes of state Painted by Anthony van Dyck, Royal Collection
46 2. He raised money using Medieval forms 2. He raised money using Medieval forms of taxation (those with wealth were obligated to pay)3. “Ship money”: all counties were required to pay to outfit ships where before, only coastal communities had paid.4. Religious persecution of Puritans by Charles I became the biggest reason for the English Civil War.
47 An English cartoon from the 1640s D. Civil war broke out in Cavaliers supported the king and Church of England 2. Puritans (Roundheads) supported Parliamentpublic domainAn English cartoon from the 1640s
48 E. Oliver Cromwell, a fiercely Puritan Independent and military leader of the Roundheads, led his New Model Army to victory over the Cavaliers.1. A division between Puritans and Presbyterians (and non-Puritans) developed late in the war.2. Pride’s Purge, 1648: Elements of the New Model Army removed all non-Puritans from Parliament leaving a “Rump Parliament”Wikipedia Commons Painting by William Cooper, Located at National Portrait Gallery, London
49 A contemporary woodcut of the beheading of Charles I, 1649 F. Charles I was beheaded in 1649-- First European king ever to be executed by his own subjectsA contemporary woodcut of the beheading of Charles I, 1649public domain
50 G. New sects emerged:1. Levellers: radical religious revolutionaries who sought social and political reforms to create a more egalitarian society2. Diggers: denied Parliament’s political authority and rejected private ownership of land3. Quakers: influenced by Anabaptistsa. Believed each person had an “inner light” within him/herb. Rejected official Church authorityc. Pacifists who opposed ward. Women were allowed to preach
51 H. The Interregnum (1649-1660): rule with no king 1. The Commonwealth ( ): a republic was created after the war that abolished the monarchy and House of Lordsa. The new republic failed to govern effectivelyb. Cromwell dissolved the “Rump Parliament” in 1653
52 2. The Protectorate: Cromwell became 2. The Protectorate: Cromwell became Lord Protector (a Puritan dictatorship)a. Denied religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholicsb. Allowed Jews to return to England3. Invasion of Ireland, 1649: Cromwell put down an Irish revolt that favored Royalist forces in England4. Scotland conquered in
53 5. Puritan dictatorship sought to regulate the moral life of England a. Dancing, gambling, drinking, and prostitution were illegalizedb. Seriously alienated people from Cromwell’s rule6. Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, who ruled ineffectively7. Stuarts were restored to the monarchy under Charles II (r ) in 1660
54 The Anatomy of Revolution Revolution run by Moderates(Parliament: Puritans and Presbyterians)Radicals take revolution to the extremeIndependents under Cromwell (New Model Army); (Levellers & Diggers are even more extreme)“Old Regime” –Conservatives (Royalists)RadicalConservativeSource: Based on Brinton Crane, The Anatomy of Revolution, New York: Vintage, 1969Thermidor: Move away from extremism (Cromwell’s Protectorate)Restoration: Return of conservatives to power (Charles II)
55 “30 FEDS” 30 Years’ War F rench Civil Wars E nglish Civil War Memory Device for the Religious Wars“30 FEDS”30 Years’ WarF rench Civil WarsE nglish Civil WarD utch RevoltS panish ArmadaNOT FOR PUBLICATION