Presentation on theme: "Unit 2, Part 3 Notes Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 2, Part 3 Notes Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy
Autotrophs A groups of organisms that can use the energy in sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into Glucose (food) Autotrophs are also called Producers because they produce all of the food that heterotrophs use Without autotrophs, there would be no life on this planet Ex. Plants and Algae
Chemotrophs –Autotrophs that get their energy from inorganic substances, such as salt –Live deep down in the ocean where there is no sunlight. Some bacteria use the sulphur to get energy and then use this to perform photosynthesis –Ex. Bacteria and Deep Sea Worms
Heterotrophs Organisms that do not make their own food Another term for Heterotroph is consumer because they consume other organisms in order to live Ex. Rabbits, Deer, Mushrooms
Heterotrophs Consumers –4. Omnivores – eat BOTH plants and animals Ex. – Bears and Humans
Heterotrophs Consumers –5. Decomposers – absorb any dead material and break it down into simple nutrients or fertilizers they do this by excreting an enzyme like substance, dissolving and absorbing the nutrients. Ex. – Bacteria and Mushrooms
Transfer of Energy When a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain all of the energy the grass has (much of it is not eaten) When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as heat)
Transfer of Energy The two (2) previous examples of energy transfer show that no organism EVER receives all of the energy from the organism they just ate Only approximately 10% of the energy stored in the organic matter of one trophic level is used by the next level for growth. This is called the 10% law The rest goes into heat, cellular respiration and waste products
When a bird eats a caterpillar, how much energy is available for the bird?
Trophic Levels Energy moves from one organism to another when it is eaten Each step in this transfer of energy is know as a trophic level –The main trophic levels are producers, consumers, and decomposers
Food Chains The energy flow from one trophic level to the other is know as a food chain A food chain is simple and direct It involves one organism at each trophic level –Primary Consumers – eat autotrophs (producers) –Secondary Consumers – eat the primary consumers –Tertiary Consumers – eat the secondary consumers –Decomposers – bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment
Biomass The total mass of the organic matter at each trophic level is called biomass This is always measured as dry weight because water has no useable energy. Biomass is often used as another term for potential energy – energy that is to be eaten and used. The transfer of energy from one level to another is very inefficient (10% Law)
Productivity Productivity: is the Rate at which the biomass accumulates. It is usually written as grams per square metre of land per year A rainforest will produce 1000-3500g dry matter per m2 per year A dessert will produce from 10 up to 250g per m2 per year
Ecological Pyramid Which level has the most energy? Which level has the most organisms? Which level has the least organisms? Which level has the least energy? Which level has the most biomass?
Ecological Pyramids - Biomass An ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystem Shows the relative amounts of dry matter contained at each trophic level The Pyramid shows which level has the most dry matter for a given unit of time This can be inverted
These can be inverted In some ecosystems the pyramid can look different. For example a simple marine system where: Phytoplankton grow and reproduce really quickly and then are eaten by the zoo plankton just as quickly. They never develop a large population size for a given period of time. Their rate of production, however is higher than the zooplankton that eat them or else the system would fail.
Pyramid of Energy Similar to the biomass pyramid Shows the amount of energy transferred to each level in a given area over a time period This can not be inverted. The energy amounts at the bottom must be more than the energy in the levels above. Why?
Pyramid of Numbers This is when each box of the pyramid shows the numbers of individuals present in that level. These can be inverted For example: If you have 3-4 rose bushes only but hundreds of insects feeding off them.
Symbiosis A close and permanent association between organisms of different species –Commensalism – a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not affected Example: Barnacles on a whale –Mutualism – a relationship in which both organisms benefit from each other Example: Birds eating pest off a rhino’s back –Parasitism – A relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed Example: Ticks on a dog
Ecological Succession A change in the community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones –1. Primary Succession – occurs in an area where there is no existing communities and for some reason (s) a new community of organisms move into the area
Ecological Succession A change in the community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones –2. Secondary Succession – occurs in an area where an existing community is partially damaged
Ecological Succession A change in the community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones –3. Climax Community – a community that is stable and has a great diversity of organisms