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DO NOW Answer the following: What is Ecology?.

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Presentation on theme: "DO NOW Answer the following: What is Ecology?."— Presentation transcript:

1 DO NOW Answer the following: What is Ecology?

2 3.1 - Studying Our Living Planet
Ecology is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment.

3 Chapter 3 The Biosphere Biology CP P. Smith

4 Biosphere Earth’s organisms live in the biosphere.
The biosphere consists of the parts of the planet in which all life exists. Ecologists may study different levels of ecological organization: Individual organism An assemblage of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area is called a population. An assemblage of different populations that live together in an area is referred to as a community.


6 Ecosystem An ecosystem includes all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their physical environment. A group of ecosystems that have similar climates and organisms is called a biome.

7 Biomes A group of ecosystems that have similar climates and organisms is called a biome. Examples Tropical Rain Forest Desert Temperate Forest ( we live here)

8 Biotic and Abiotic Factors
Ecosystems include biotic and abiotic factors. A biotic factor is any living part of an environment. An abiotic factor is any nonliving part of an environment.

9 Ecological Methods Ecologists use three basic methods of research: observation, experimentation, and modeling: Observation often leads to questions and hypotheses. Experiments can be used to test hypotheses. Modeling helps ecologists understand complex processes.

10 3.2 Energy, Producers & Consumers
Primary Producers Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth. Organisms that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food are called autotrophs, or primary producers.

11 Primary Producers = Autotrophs
The process in which autotrophs capture light energy and use it to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars is called photosynthesis. The process in which autotrophs use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates is called chemosynthesis.

12 Photoautotrophs Without autotrophs, there would be no life on this planet Ex. Plants and Algae

13 Autotrophs Chemotrophs
Autotrophs that get their energy from inorganic substances, such as salt Live deep down in the ocean where there is no sunlight Ex. Bacteria and Deep Sea Worms

14 Consumers = Heterotrophs
Organisms that do not make their own food Another term for Heterotroph is consumer because they consume other organisms in order to live Ex. Rabbits, Deer, Mushrooms

15 Heterotrophs Deer Rabbits Mushrooms

16 Heterotrophs = Consumers
Herbivores – eat ONLY plants Ex. – Cows, Elephants, Giraffes

17 Heterotrophs = Consumers
Carnivores – eat ONLY meat Ex. – Lions, Tigers, Sharks

18 Heterotrophs = Consumers
Omnivores – eat BOTH plants and animals Ex. – Bears and Humans Kyle Smith

19 Heterotrophs = Consumers
Detritivores - feed on the tissue (detritus) of dead organisms (plant or animal) Shrimp, earthworms, dust mites

20 Heterotrophs = Consumers
Decomposers – absorb any dead material and break it down into simple nutrients or fertilizers Ex. – Bacteria and Mushrooms

21 Heterotrophs = Consumers
Scavengers– Consumes the carcasses of dead animals but does not typically kill them itself. Ex. – Vultures & Crows

22 Energy Flow in Ecosystems (Transfer of Energy)
When a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain all of the energy the grass has (much of it is not eaten) When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as heat)

23 Transfer of Energy The two (2) previous examples of energy transfer show that no organism EVER receives all of the energy from the organism they just ate Only 10% of the energy from one trophic level is transferred to the next – this is called the 10% law

24 Trophic Levels Energy moves from one organisms to another when it is eaten Each step in this transfer of energy is know as a trophic level The main trophic levels are producers, consumers, and decomposers

25 Food Chains The energy flow from one trophic level to the other is know as a food chain A food chain is simple and direct It involves one organism at each trophic level Primary Consumers – eat autotrophs (producers) Secondary Consumers – eat the primary consumers Tertiary Consumers – eat the secondary consumers Decomposers – bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment

26 Food Chain

27 Food Web Most organisms eat more the JUST one organism
When more organism are involved it is know as a FOOD WEB Food webs are more complex and involve lots of organisms

28 Food Web

29 Food Web Notice that the direction the arrow points  the arrow points in the direction of the energy transfer, NOT “what ate what”

30 Food Web

31 Biomass The total mass of the organic matter at each trophic level is called biomass Biomass is just another term for potential energy – energy that is to be eaten and used. The transfer of energy from one level to another is very inefficient (10% Law)

32 Biomass

33 Ecological Pyramid An ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystem Shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained at each trophic level The Pyramid shows which level has the most energy and the highest number of organisms

34 Ecological Pyramid Which level has the most energy?
Which level has the most organisms? Which level has the least organisms? Which level has the least energy?

35 Ecological Pyramid

36 Ecological Pyramid

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