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Levels of Organization Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy Unit 6.

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Presentation on theme: "Levels of Organization Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy Unit 6."— Presentation transcript:

1 Levels of Organization Food Chains, Food Webs, and the Transfer of Energy Unit 6

2 Bell Ringer 03-16-15 Give an example of the following: Producer: Primary Consumer: Secondary Consumer: Tertiary Consumer:

3 Population All of the individuals of a species in a specific area at a certain time. Members of a population compete for food, water, space, and mates; for example, wildebeest’s in Kenya.

4 Communities  All the different populations in a specific area at a certain time.  For example, all of the wildebeests, zebras, and trees at the watering hole are part of the same community.  Some of these interactions involve the obtaining and use of food, space, or other environmental resources.

5 Ecosystem  One or more communities in an area and the abiotic factors, including water, sunlight, oxygen, temperature, and soil.  Abiotic factors  non living parts of environment  (soil, air, light and temperature, water)  Biotic  living or once-living organisms of environment

6 1. Autotrophs  A groups of organisms that can use the energy in sunlight and convert into food  Autotrophs are also called Producers because they produce all of the food that heterotrophs use  Without autotrophs, there would be no life on this planet Ex. Plants and Algae

7 2. Heterotrophs  Organisms that do not make their own food.  Another term for Heterotroph is consumer because they consume other organisms in order to live.  Ex. Rabbits, Deer, Mushrooms

8 Consumers 3. Scavenges – feed on the tissue of dead organisms (both plants and animals)  Ex. – Vultures, Crows, Shrimp 4. Herbivores – eat ONLY plants  Ex. – Cows, Elephants, Giraffes 5. Carnivores – eat ONLY meat  Ex. – Lions, Tigers, Sharks 6. Omnivores – eat BOTH plants and animals  Ex. – Bears and Humans

9 Consumers 7. Decomposers – absorb any dead material and break it down into simple nutrients or fertilizers  Ex. – Bacteria and Mushrooms

10 Transfer of Energy  When a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain all of the energy the grass has (much of it is not eaten)  When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as heat) 8. The Law of 10% - Only 10% of the energy from one trophic level is transferred to the next.

11 Bell Ringer 03-17-15 Give an example of the following terms: Abiotic: Biotic: Autotroph: Heterotroph:

12 Trophic Levels  Energy moves from one organisms to another when it is eaten 9. Trophic Levels: Each step in this transfer of energy is known as a trophic level.  The main trophic levels are producers, consumers, and decomposers

13 But Why 10%?  We can examine this further by constructing a pyramid of energy, which shows rates of production rather than standing crop.  Let’s use an ocean environment as an example:  Algal populations can double in a few days, whereas the zooplankton that feed on them reproduce more slowly and might double in numbers in a few months, and the fish feeding on zooplankton might only reproduce once a year.  The amount of organisms in one trophic level effects how many/how much energy there is in the next tropic level.  Some of the energy is lost to heat produced when they decompose.

14 10. Food Chains  The energy flow from one trophic level to the other is know as a food chain.  A food chain is simple and direct  It involves one organism at each trophic level  Primary Consumers – eat autotrophs (producers)  Secondary Consumers – eat the primary consumers  Tertiary Consumers – eat the secondary consumers  Decomposers – bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment


16 12. Ecological Pyramid  An ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystem.  They also show the relative amounts of energy or matter contained at each trophic level.  The Pyramid shows which level has the most energy and the highest number of organisms



19 Videos Energy Pyramids

20  The following food chain locations should be represented:  Intertidal zone - possible organisms: rock algae, barnicles, starfish, moray eel  Open ocean zone - possible organisms: photoplankton, zooplankton, krill, blue whale  Land zone - possible organisms: Your choice  Another zone of your choice  Draw each organism in the correct location on its energy pyramid.  Color the organisms you have drawn.  Label each organism in all pyramids.  You may only use humans on one energy pyramid.  Cut, fold, and tape your pyramid to form a four-sided pyramid. Create your own!

21  Analysis :  How did the organisms vary with each of your four energy pyramids?  Compare your pyramid with a that of a friend's pyramid.  What similar organisms did you both use?  How were your energy pyramids different from each other?

22 Ecological Pyramid 1.Which level has the most energy? 2.Which level has the most organisms? 3.Which level has the least organisms? 4.Which level has the least energy?

23 Food Chain

24 11. Food Web  Most organisms eat more than JUST one organism.  When more organisms are involved it is known as a FOOD WEB.  Food webs are more complex and involve many organisms.

25 S.N. Food Web Arrows  Notice that the direction the arrow points  the arrow points in the direction of the energy transfer.

26 Food Web

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