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Chapter 22- Progressives and Reformers

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1 Chapter 22- Progressives and Reformers
Section 4 – Progress for Women

2 Working for the Vote Review: Seneca Falls Convention in 1848 started the organized women’s rights movement in the US. (remember from last year?) 1869 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony formed the National Women Suffrage Association (what does suffrage mean?) – worked for a Constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote – opposed the 15th Amendment (what was the 15th Amendment and why do you think they opposed it?) During late 1800s, women got the right to vote in Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and Idaho. Why do you think western states gave women the right to vote first? When Wyoming applied to become a state in 1890, many in Congress wanted them to take away women’s right to vote. Wyoming’s response: “We may stay out of the Union for 100 years, but we will come in with our women.”

3 Suffragists Suffragists were those who campaigned for a women’s right to vote By the early 1900s, 5 million women were earning money outside the home. Many wanted a say in electing the people who make the laws that governed them. By 1906, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony had died and a new generation of women leaders took over. Carrie Chapman Catt had worked as a school principal and a reporter and became the head of the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Catt developed the plan that worked – go state by state, starting in the west then the midwest, then go for a Constitutional amendment.

4 Amending the Constitution
Protest at the White House Alice Paul and other suffragists met with President Wilson in 1913 shortly after he became president. He said that he had nothing against women getting the right to vote but did not want a Constitutional amendment. They kept sending women’s groups to meet with the president. January 1917 – Alice Paul and others began a silent protest outside the White House. After a couple of months police started arresting the protesters for blocking the sidewalk. Alice Paul received a jail sentence of 7 months. To protest, she went on a hunger strike and the prison force-fed her (and others). When she was released from prison, she went back to the protest. By early 1918, President Wilson agreed to support a suffrage amendment 1919 Congress passed the 19th Amendment and by August of 1920, it was ratified by the states. This doubled the number of eligible voters in the US.

5 Women Win New Opportunities
Most states in this time period would not even give women licenses to practice in professions (law, medicine, even college teaching). Higher Education – 1877 Boston University granted the first Ph.D. to a woman By 1900 there were about 1,000 women lawyers and 7,000 women doctors Commitment to reform – many women participated in the Progressive movement Florence Kelley investigated sweatshops and became Illinois’ first chief factory inspector. She had organized a boycott of products made with child labor (continuing issue). Other women formed women’s clubs and raised money for libraries, schools and parks; they fought for laws to protect women and children; for pure food and drug laws; and for the right to vote African American women formed their own clubs and they also worked against lynching and racial separation.

6 The Temperance Crusade
Temperance Movement – an effort to end the use of alcoholic beverages. It began in the early 1800s and gained strength by the late 1800s. Women were the major force in this movement. Alcohol was a major threat to families – often causing violence and economic hardship in the homes. 1874 – Women’s Christian Temperance Union was formed. Francis Willard became president of the WCTU in They would go into bars with bibles, read psalms and sang religious songs. Carry Nation – more radical crusader. Review – what did she do? 18th Amendment – In 1917 US entered WWI and temperance leaders said grain should be used to feed our soldiers, not to make alcohol. Passed Congress in 1917 and ratified by enough states by th Amendment made it illegal to make, move or sell alcoholic beverages anywhere in the US.

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