3 What was the main problem that Romans faced after the Punic Wars? Crops failed and farms were ruined because the farmers were away from their farms for so long because they were off fighting in the wars.
4 How were many other farms destroyed in Rome? During the 2nd Punic War Hannibal had raided and destroyed them.
5 What do you call the large faming estates that were owned by patricians in Rome? latifundias
6 Who did patricians have to work on the latifundias? Enslaved prisoners
7 They didn’t have to pay the prisoners who worked on their latifundias. Why could the patricians sell their crops for cheaper prices than the plebeians?They didn’t have to pay the prisoners who worked on their latifundias.
8 What did the farmers do to try to get out of debt? Sold their farms andmoved to the cities.
9 (cheap food and entertainment) What did the Roman politicians do to try to keep the plebeians in the city happy?Provided them with“bread and circuses”(cheap food and entertainment)
10 What did Tiberius and Gaius do to try to help the poor in Rome? They tried to get the Senate to take public land from the rich and give it to the poor.
11 What did Marius do to try to recruit new soldiers? He paid them for their work and promised them land.
12 How did Marius change the Roman army? He changed them from citizen volunteers to paid soldiers.
13 Who was the general who defeated Marius and drove his enemies out of Rome? Sulla
14 What did Sulla do while he was dictator of Rome? He took power away from the Council of Plebs and gave more power to the Senate.
15 What do you call a war where both sides fighting are from the same country? A civil war
17 Generals from the military After Sulla left office, what type of people vied (competed) for power in Rome?Generals from the military
18 Who were the 3 men who formed the first triumvirate in Rome? Caesar, Crassus and Pompey
19 A political alliance of What is a triumvirate?A political alliance ofthree people
20 Which member of the triumvirate was popular with the plebeians? Julius Caesar
21 Why did Crassus and Pompey try to take power away from Caesar? They were afraid he was getting too powerful.
22 What idiom, from ancient Rome, means to do something that you can never take back? To “Cross the Rubicon”
23 Why did Caesar lead his disobey the order to give up his army? He feared that the Senate would put him in prison or have him killed.
24 What happened when Caesar marched his troops across the Rubicon? It started a civil war.
25 What happened to Caesar after he destroyed Pompey’s army and drove them from Italy? He made himselfdictator for life.
26 What were some changes that Caesar as dictator that made him popular with the poor? He started new colonies to give land to the landless.He crated jobs for poorHe made landowners pay the people who worked the farms
27 What is one of thing created during Caesar’s rule that is still used in most parts of the world today?A new calendar with12 months, 365 days& a leap year
28 What happened to end Caesar’s dictatorship? He was murdered
30 What caused the 2nd civil war in Rome? Caesar’s death
31 Who took control of Rome after Caesar’s death? Octavian (Caesar’s nephew),Antony and Lepidus(2 of Caesar’s top generals)
32 Why didn’t the 2nd Triumvirate last very long? The three members started fighting over power
33 What did Antony do that scared many Romans and convinced Octavian to declare war? He married an Egyptian queen named Cleopatra and many feared he wanted to become sole ruler of the republic.
34 What was the system of government created under Octavian? The Roman Empire
35 A popular political leader, writer and public speaker from Rome. Who was Cicero?A popular political leader, writer and public speaker from Rome.
36 What type of government did Cicero want to see in Rome? A representative government with limited powers
37 How did Octavian “trick” the people who helped put in into power? He said he was going to form a representative government but didn’t.
38 He thought it would be too weak to solve Rome’s problems. Why didn’t Octavian live up to his promise to create a more representative government?He thought it would be too weak to solve Rome’s problems.
39 What title did Octavian give himself? Imperator(which means commander in chief)
40 What modern term is derived from the term imperator? emperor
41 How did Octavian come to be known as Augustus? He gave himself that title (which means the majestic one.)