2 Rome Grows Through Conquest As Rome conquered the Italian Peninsula they encountered the Carthaginian Empire stretched across North Africa and the western Mediterranean.These two empires fought a series of three wars known as the Punic Wars(264 B.C.-146B.C.). Punic comes from the Latin word Punicus which means Phoenician.
3 Results of the Punic Wars Rome won the 1st Punic War and gained the islands of Sicily Corsica and SardiniaDuring the 2nd Punic War, Carthage was led by Hannibal who trekked his army across the Alps to surprise attack the Romans. For 15 years Hannibal’s forces won battles across Italy . In the end the Romans won and took all lands Carthage controlled outside of Africa.In the 3rd Punic War the Romans completely destroyed Carthage.
4 Roman ImperialismRome’s conquest of foreign lands reflected their policy of imperialism. By 133 B.C. the Roman Empire stretched from Spain to Egypt.Rome took over the trade routes of the empires they conqueredThis brought enormous wealth to Rome. A new wealthy class built huge estates called latifundias. The huge amounts of crops produced on these estates drove down food prices. Poor farmers were loosing money and began to revoltTiberius and Gaius Gracchus were tribunes who fought for the poor’s rights. The senate viewed the brothers as a threat and had them murdered.
5 The Empire DeclinesThe struggle over the Senate and politicians seeking to make reforms resulted in Roman civil war.Julius Caesar was a great military leader who gained popularity through military victories.Caesar’s enemy was a military leader named Pompey. Pompey persuaded the senate to disband Caesar's army, but Caesar refused.After defeating Pompey, Caesar came back to Rome and forced the senate to make him dictator for life.
6 The Empire DeclinesCaesar made reforms which helped the poor gain land and jobs, allowed more people to become Roman citizens, and created the Julian calendar (the basis of our present calendar)In 44 B.C. the senate assassinated Caesar due to fear he would make himself king.Caesar’s friend Marc Antony and his nephew Octavian sought revenge, but soon fought each other for power.
7 The Age of the Roman Empire Declines The senate gave Octavian the title of “Exalted One”, or 1st Emperor.Augustus made reforms which led to a more stable government. He established a census, or population count, to ensure everyone was fairly taxed.The system of government enacted by Augustus lasted for 200 years, but didn’t solve the problem of who was to rule after an emperor’s death.
8 Emperors Vary Not all emperors were as successful as Augustus. Caligula was insane and Nero severely persecuted Christians.Hadrian codified Roman law. He also had Hadrian’s Wall constructed to keep out invaders from the north.Marcus Aurelias was a philosopher king who strived to serve his duty as leaderDuring the Pax Romana Rome enjoyed a 200 year span of peace and prosperity.