Presentation on theme: "American History Chapter 19: The Cold War I. Origins of the Cold War."— Presentation transcript:
American History Chapter 19: The Cold War I. Origins of the Cold War
Bell Ringer What is a “cold” war? What makes a war cold and not hot? What made it a war?
Objectives Learn why 1945 was a critical year in US foreign relations. Discover some of the postwar goals of the US and USSR. Find out how the iron curtain tightened the Soviet hold over Eastern Europe. See how the Truman Doctrine complemented the policy of containment. Setting the scene page 636
A) 1945 – A Critical Year Before the war – US and USSR not friendly At Yalta – Poland big issue – Democracies wanted the prewar government back – Stalin wanted a communist government – finally promised elections in Poland 1945 San Francisco – UN created Potsdam Conference – (Attlee) Truman wants elections in Poland – Stalin wants war reparations Stalin told about atomic bomb
B) Conflicting Postwar Goals Quote page 638 US wanted an open democratic world USSR wanted to protect its interests (17mil) 1)Satellite nations: countries subject to Soviet domination, on the western borders of the USSR that would serve as a buffer zone against attacks Stalin promoted communism abroad
C) Soviets Tighten Their Hold Soviet Union gave elections in Poland 2 years later – had eliminated the opposition Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Romania all become communist. Stalin did not want a strong Germany – kept East German separate and communist Finland able to remain neutral and Yugoslavia become communist but independent of Stalin
D) The Iron Curtain Stalin gave a speech in 1946 that said ultimately communism will triumph around the world Churchill responded in Mississippi – coined the phrase – called on US to help keep the world safe from an “iron curtain” 2)Iron curtain: communist domination and oppression 3)Cold War: competition that developed between the US and USSR for power and influence in the world Political conflict, economic conflict and military tensions.
E) Containment 4)Containment – called for US to resist Soviet attempts to form Communist government elsewhere What if we try to eliminate communism? George Kennan – communism will eventually crumble
F) The Truman Doctrine USSR wanted Turkey and Greece 1947 Britain announced it could not afford it Quote page 642 5) Truman Doctrine: called for the US to take a world leadership role, and declared that the US would support nations threatened by communism
Review Why was 1945 a critical year in the US foreign relations? What were the postwar goals of the US and USSR? How did the iron curtain tighten the Soviet Union’s hold over Eastern Europe? How did the Truman Doctrine complement the policy of containment?