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The Cold War Begins Origins of the Cold War

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War Begins Origins of the Cold War"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War Begins Origins of the Cold War
In this Decade:

2 Student Objectives Discuss the importance of Yalta and Potsdam
Compare and contrast the Yalta Conference and the Potsdam Conference

3 The Cold War 1946 – 1990 Constant global confrontation between
Soviet Union United States Avoidance of direct armed conflict between the two “Superpowers”

4 Preview of Events February 1945 April 1945 July 1945 March 1946
Yalta conference President Roosevelt dies Potsdam Conference Churchill delivers “iron curtain speech”


6 American vs Soviet Concerns
AMERICAN VIEW SOVIET VIEW ECONOMIC Capitalist Concerned about economic problems Promote Democracy + free enterprise SECURITY Concerned about being invaded twice in less than 30 years by the Germans = keep Germany weak and create buffer states (satellite nations) Communism = superior economic system

7 Yalta Conference The facts… When: February 1945 Who:
Review: #15 The facts… When: February 1945 Who: Roosevelt Churchill Stalin Where: Soviet resort, Yalta

8 Yalta Conference cont. ISSUES DISCUSSED Poland
Soviets encouraged for a Polish Communist gov’t Roosevelt and Churchill argued that government should be free Stalin argued that Polish government had to be friendly with Soviet Union Compromise = Soviet Union would set up government but would include non-communist members from pre-war government Declaration of Liberated Europe All agreed to issue Declaration of Liberated Europe Declaration = gave the people the right to create democratic institutions of their choice as soon as they can through free elections Promised to put temporary government that represented all democratic elements

9 Yalta Conference cont. ISSUES DISCUSSED cont. Dividing Germany
Into 4 zones United States Great Britain France USSR Also divided Berlin into 4 zones Stalin still wanted to weaken Germany economically and to pay heavy reparations FDR agreed but insisted Germany to pay based on the country’s ability to pay FDR and Stalin agreed Germany would pay reparations with trade goods and products instead of cash Allies allowed to remove industrial machinery, railroad cars, and other equipment from Germany as reparations

10 Yalta Conference Result
Arguments about reparations and economic policy continued Tensions between United States and Soviet Union increased After the conference… Soviet Union pressured King of Romania into appointing a Communist government United States accused Soviets of violating Declaration of Liberated Europe Soon after… Soviet Union refused to allow more than 3 non-communist Poles to serve in 18 member government Soviet Union had no indication to hold free elections in Poland as promised April 1, 1945 – FDR informed Soviets that their actions were not acceptable 11 days later, FDR died Truman becomes President

11 Truman Takes Control Review: #43 He was strongly anticommunist and suspicious of Stalin Believed WWII started because Great Britain tried to appease Hitler – did not want to make the same mistake 10 days after taking office, Truman met with Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov Brought up issue of Poland Demanded that Stalin hold free elections as promised at Yalta Molotov reported back to Stalin MEETING CREATED IMPORTANT SHIFT IN SOVIET- AMERICAN RELATIONS Why??

12 Potsdam Conference The facts… When: July 1945 Who: Where: Potsdam
Review: #9 The facts… When: July 1945 Who: Truman Attlee Stalin Where: Potsdam near Berlin

13 Potsdam Conference cont.
Truman and Stalin believed in reparations from Germany Truman wanted Germany’s industry recovered so that the country’s economy could revive Germany’s strong economy = could help the rest of Europe recover and Germany would turn away from communism Stalin opposed  wanted Germany to pay more reparations than the other zones wanted Truman suggests Stalin to take reparations from the Soviet zone while the allied zones would allow their economy to revive Stalin opposed  Soviet zone was mostly agriculture Could not provide all the reparations that Soviets wanted To get Soviets to accept deal, Truman offered Stalin small amount of German industrial equipment from other zones and agree to accept new German- Polish border In return, Stalin would have to pay part of it with food shipments from the Soviet zone

14 Potsdam Conference cont.
Did Stalin agree to these terms? Stalin STILL disagreed BUT – Truman learned something while at Potsdam The U.S. successfully tested the atomic bomb Truman told Stalin about the test Stalin suspected Truman was trying to bully him into the deal And suspected that Americans were trying to limit reparations to keep Soviets weak Nevertheless… Stalin had to accept the deal US and Great Britain troops controlled German’s industrial heartland = Soviets had to cooperate in order to get reparations

15 Potsdam Conference Result
End of conference marked more tensions between Soviets and the Americans Further paving way to Cold War

16 The Iron Curtain Descends
Soviets refused to make stronger commitments to uphold Declaration of Liberated Europe after Potsdam Soviet army in east Europe ensured a pro-Soviet Communist government to be established in Poland Romania Hungary Czechoslovakia These became the satellite nations that buffered the Soviet Union from Germany Nations were not under direct Soviet control BUT had to remain communist and friendly to Soviet Union AND follow policies Soviets approved of

17 Winston Churchill March 5, 1946 – After seeing the Soviet Union takeover Eastern Europe, Churchill gave a speech “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of central and Eastern Europe… All are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence, but to a very high increasing measure of control from Moscow.” Iron Curtain – separating the communist nations of Eastern Europe from the West, marking end of WWII and beginning of the Cold War

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