Presentation on theme: "Education For most of us education takes place in schools. 1. They are the first organisations most of us attend on our own. 2. Education is the continuation."— Presentation transcript:
Education For most of us education takes place in schools. 1. They are the first organisations most of us attend on our own. 2. Education is the continuation of the socialisation started in the family 3. There is a close connection between the economy and skills acquired in education 4. The kind of work people do is influenced by the kind of education they get. 5. The issue of who does well and who doesn't in education is a key concern of sociologists.
Functionalism Functionalists ask 2 questions about education 1What are the functions for society? 2. What is the relationship between education and other parts of the ‘body’ of society
Functionalists Durkheim Education promotes social solidarity The school is a mini society where children learn how to become adult members of society and fit in Rules, hierarchies, exams, assemblies etc all help Education teaches skills needed for jobs
Functionalists Parsons School is a bridge between the family and wider society Move from particularistic standards of the family to universalistic values of society I.E. In the family you are special to your parents and you are treated as an individual.
Functionalists In society you are judged against standards because people don’t know you. E.g exams Education is a meritocracy – a system based on merit Schools also teach the values of society Schools assess students’ abilities and match them up to relevant jobs
Meritocracy Those with talent and intelligence – no matter what socio-economic background they are from will achieve more educationally than those without such attributes Predicted on idea that Australia’s state education system is free so all exposed to same influences – but in fact there is a huge divide in the education of the rich and poor
Functionalism Davis and Moore 1967 - sifting and grading Schools sift and grade pupils according to ability The most talented get high qualifications which lead to important jobs Important jobs get high rewards
Functionalists Criticisms Durkheim assumes the values transmitted in school are those of society as a whole rather than those of powerful groups Parsons fails to look at diversity of values in society.
Functionalists Criticisms cont Many question the idea of education being a meritiocracy Social class prevents the education system sifting and grading according to ability i.e. MC (middle class) kids do better at school than those from WC (working class)
Conflict theories A sociological perspective that focuses on tensions, divisions and competing interests present in human societies Believe that the scarcity and value of resources in society produces conflict as groups struggle to gain access to and control of those resources Influenced by Marx
Marxism Bourdieu 1977 - Cultural Capital the process whereby a dominant culture penetrates educational institutions MC kids have an advantage because they have been socialised into the dominant culture MC pupils have the codes to unlock the mysteries of education MC parents have the ‘knowledge ‘ of how to play the system in their favour.
Marxism Bourdieu 1977 - Cultural Reproduction Reproduction takes place via the socialisation of the young In effect MC kids grow up to have MC jobs..have kids who grow up to be MC etc etc…..
Marxism Criticisms 1. The role of education has been over simplified 2. Students do see the system as unfair 3. All students do not conform to the rules and regulations of school life. 4. People do have different abilities and some skills are in short supply, therefore it is functionally necessary that some will earn more than others
Interactionism Labelling Theory 1. Is a major part of the Interactionist approach 2. Teachers label pupils in a particular way – bright or thick 3. Parents and other students can play a part in labelling too. 4. Banding/Streaming in schools can help to reinforce the bright/thick labelling process
Interactionism Rosenthal & Jacobson 1968 Selected a random sample of pupils in a US school and told the teachers that these were the ‘top performers’ They found that these students marks were the highest in the class after 1 year They concluded that the teachers had promoted a self-fulfilling prophecy
Interactionism Ball 1981 Pupils were placed in 3 bands when they arrived at the school Kids from MC backgrounds had a greater chance of getting into the top band Teachers taught the bands differently Top band pupils were ‘warmed up’ for exam success Bottom band pupils were ‘cooled down’ – teachers didn’t expect much
Interactionism Criticisms 1. Tend to ignore where class differences originate 2. Generally focus on small scale studies e.g. individual schools 3. Tend to ignore factors outside the school